Driven assembly gel

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Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

TLDR

A number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature are discussed.Expand

Biomimetic 4D printing.

Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are… Expand

Designing Responsive Buckled Surfaces by Halftone Gel Lithography

TLDR

A method of photopatterning polymer films that yields temperature-responsive gel sheets that can transform between a flat state and a prescribed three-dimensional shape is introduced, based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymers containing pendent benzophenone units that allow cross-linking to be tuned by irradiation dose.Expand
Sours: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Light-Driven-Shape-Morphing%2C-Assembly%2C-and-Motion-Kim-Kang/6369c6f4d0047883432cd728f864fb1ffddf8f81

What is the Best Type of Engine Assembly Grease?

The life blood of any diesel engine is lubrication. A good diesel engine can go bad very quickly due to lack of oil. Long before oil enters the engine the assembly grease is the first line of defense against friction that can damage the engine upon startup. This article will explain the various methodologies to applying assembly grease and the best types of lubricants to use during the engine building process.

The diesel engine building process is one where patience and an eye for the detail is required. Engine building is both an art and a science where following specifications is critical. There is no grey area when it comes to manufacturing or rather remanufacturing a diesel engine. The internal hard parts are machined to correct OEM tolerances, then assembled with the right clearances and then properly lubricated with the right kind of engine assembly grease.

The first few minutes are the most crucial during the initial startup of an engine. A lot can go wrong with a freshly built engine. For example if the pre-lube is skipped the rings might not seat properly and the bearings could ride too tight or too loose. Many issues can snowball and cause catastrophic engine damage. Above all else, the oil delivery system has to build up the oil pressure within the engine so that all wear surfaces receive proper lubrication. Camshaft failure is a popular source of failure upon initially starting an engine without proper lubrication.

Assembly lube’s purpose is to provide the initial lubrication during the startup of the engine. The lube is designed to work in conjunction with standard engine oil and provide a more robust protective barrier around the metal components during startup.

After the initial startup of the engine much of the assembly lube is washed away within the first 10 seconds. The oil pressure should build up and flush away the lube which would then end up in the oil pan. Priming the oil system is important prior to cranking the engine as it prevents a completely dry start and cuts down the time it takes for oil to reach the camshaft, bearings and valve train. Essentially, priming the engine gives oil pressure a head start to build up.

There are many different types of assembly lube and each diesel engine builder will favor one type or another. The most popular lubes are usually moly-based (Molybdenum Disulfide) and are designed to operate at high temperatures. Newer compounds are manufactured with additives that hold up better under extreme pressures and also act as rust inhibitors much like the compound Cosmoline.

Each assembly lube is different in consistency and application. Most are like a thin and viscous, while others are a bit thicker. Some newer lubes are very light liquid mists that harden around metal surfaces. Many prefer traditional pastes because you can tell easily if all surfaces are covered. With liquid mists it can be easy to miss a spot or two.

Molybdenum Composite Greases

Molybdenum (Moly) based engine assembly lubrication has been around for 100+ years and became widely used in WWII. Molybdenum Disulfide comes from the mineral “Molybdenite” which was first used in metallurgy in 1330 Japan during the production of sword making. Molybdenum Disulfide was first synthesized into the compound as far back as the 1860s in Colorado and has been produced ever since. The first settlers and prospectors would use the substance to lubricate wagon wheel axles as well as machinery in foundries, smelters and refineries. It became commercially available in the 1920s and used extensively with automakers Ford and GM. These automakers used the product to lubricate millions of vehicle engines in World War II. After the war auto manufacturers continued to use the product on all of their engines. To this day the product works so well that the majority of automakers guarantee at least a 30,000 mile lubrication free period on the chassis and suspension. Ford guarantees 100,000 miles before re-lubrication is needed.

Molybdenum Disulfide is a great lubricant because of its chemical composition. MoS2 is a hexagon crystal composed of a lattice structure of Sulphur and Molybdenum atoms. In layman terms the compound retains its laminar structure no matter the amount of heat or pressure. If the atomic bonds are pulverized the structure re-forms instantaneously so that no ionic bonds are ever truly broken. The compound is also very resistant to friction even at temperatures of 750 degrees F. Lastly, MoS2 has a great affinity to stick to metal surfaces very easily especially if rubbed in. Moly can withstand 500,000 pounds per square inch before completely breaking down. It does not dissolve in oil or grease and can be ground down to .35 micron. A micron can be consider 1 millionth of a meter of a particle suspended in a liquid. Moly reduces friction in an engine by 60% and is even manufactured into the engine components themselves. Many companies tout the effectiveness of Moly coated gearboxes, pistons, rings and bearings.

In fact many synthetic oils use Moly (Molybdenum Trialkyldithiocarbamate (MoTDC)) or a related carbamate in the oil. It does not hurt the composition of the oil in anyway and in fact further lubricates the engines. Moly also has a way to find bind to minute cracks and imperfections in metal surfaces which can prevent metal fatigue. There is some debate though, whether MoTDC can damage the cam follower pins. Many engine builders refuse to use Moly lubricants on the camshaft or associated bearings. There may be some evidence that Molybdenum compounds in engine oils can degrade some bearings as it is aggressive towards copper. Most Molybdenum oils do indeed have a Copper Deactivator within the substance which will protect the bearings however the copper deactivator decomposes at relatively low temperatures and loses its potency only after 2,000-3,000 miles. Other reason many machinists do not use Molybdenum in engine rebuilds is due to the silicone balls within the lithium. These tiny silicone balls can clog the cam bearings and/or clog the oil filter. Despite the evidence or lack thereof, many engine builders opt not to use Moly on the camshaft. Some use a petroleum based lubricant on the cam lobes especially on flat tappets (solid or hydraulic).

Petroleum Based Greases

The second most popular assembly lube, and the one we recommend the most, is Lubriplate #105. Lubricate #105 has been around almost as long as traditional Molybdenum Lubricates. Lubricate was founded in 1870 as Fiske Brothers Refining and is the oldest independent lubricator in the United States. Lubriplate #105 acts like a white lithium grease but contains no lithium. Lubricate #105 is not an Extreme Pressure (EP) lubricant like Moly based lubricants but rather a simple grease. It is a petroleum based heavy hydrotreated naphthenic distillate and also contains less than 1% of Zinc Dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZBDC) with a fatty acid of 5%-10% to act as a stabilizer. These additional compounds do not add to the lubricity of Lubriplate #105. The compound is white in color, waterproof and a NLGI No. 0 grease lubricant used for anti-seize properties used for coating all moving parts of the engine assembly. We like it as it is thinner and more easy to spread around hard to reach areas of the assembly.

Lubricate #105 is a dependable and cheap engine assembly grease to combat engine seizing upon startup. It is recommended that the crankshaft, crank case, pistons, rings, timing gears, main and rod bearings and valve stems absolutely be covered in Lubricate #105 but is safe to use on every moving part in an internal combustion or compression engine. Albeit there is some debate, it is recommended to use Lubricate #105 on the cam and lifters. Some engine builders will use a specific bearing grease on the cam an lifters. Bearing grease is very fine lubricant recommended for use on the engine bearings due to possibility of "spinning a bearing" upon startup. Some rebuilders will dip parts in transmission fluid before applying Lubriplate #105 as it seals in that added layer of lubrication and forms a tight seal. Each engine builder is different and has a unique approach to what type of assembly lube they prefer. The vast majority of engine builders seem to favor Lubricate #105 as it gets the job done without the risk of clogging the oil galleries in the cam bearings.

There are many general engine assembly lubricates on the market from all kinds of automotive and diesel lubricant manufacturers as well as specialty products that only focus on the camshaft and bearings. Caterpillar makes their own proprietary greases for cam lobes, rocker balls and push rod cups. Each one is a little bit different and it can be overwhelming trying to decipher which lubricant is the best for your engine rebuild. It is important to do your homework and simply not buy something without knowing the chemical properties of the lubricant. Some lubricants are grease based and are not soluble in oil which means the solution will quickly be caught in the oil filter and drained into the oil pan. Others are oil soluble and will continue to circulate within then engine until the next oil change.

In any case, regardless of what assembly grease you choose it works best with applied with a thin coating over all the internal hard parts of the engine. In areas where there is high friction such as the, lifter bottoms, cam lobes, pushrod ends, rocker arms and valve stem tips, crankcase and all bearings extra attention should be given to coat the surfaces with an extra amount of assembly grease.

The assembly grease should get the job done for those crucial 10 seconds or before the engine can establish oil pressure and lubricate the hard parts with oil. It is recommended that the new engine not sit idle for the first few hundred miles. It is best to put the engine under a moderate load at 1500-2000 RPMs and let the oil do its job. Once the new engine is broken in the assembly grease is no longer needed the motor oil can take over and do its job.

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Assembly Grease, Assembly Lube, Assembly Oils, Break In Tips, Diesel Engines

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Photomodulated Morphologies in Halogen Bond-Driven Assembly during Gel-Sol Transition

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Engine Assembly Lube Shootout: Which is the Best

Concentration-Driven Assembly and Sol–Gel Transition of π-Conjugated Oligopeptides

Experimental Methods


Materials

Two different sequence-defined synthetic oligopeptides with π-conjugated cores were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), as previously described. (39, 40) Experimental details regarding peptide synthesis and analytical characterization are shown in Supporting Information (Figures S1–S3). Synthetic oligopeptides contained either a quaterthiophene (OT4) core or a perylene diimide (PDI) core situated between symmetric flanking oligopeptides with a primary amino acid sequence Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly. The overall sequence of the π-conjugated oligopeptides is HO-DFAG-OT4-GAFD-OH (abbreviated as DFAG-OT4) and HO-DFAG-PDI-GAFD-OH (abbreviated as DFAG-PDI).

Multiple Particle Tracking Microrheology

DFAG-OT4 and DFAG-PDI peptides were dissolved in distilled, deionized water (Millipore, conductivity 18 MΩ·cm). An aqueous solution of peptide (50 μL) containing 2 v/v% fluorescent polystyrene tracer particles (diameter d = 0.84 μm, Spherotech) is added to the center of a Petri dish with cover glass bottom (FluoroDish). A layer of silicone oil (dynamic viscosity η = 1000 cP at T = 22.5 °C, Sigma-Aldrich) is slowly added on top of the aqueous peptide droplet as a barrier to prevent evaporation. Imaging is performed using an inverted fluorescence microscope (IX71, Olympus) coupled to a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera (Grasshopper3, Point Gray). Samples are illuminated using a 100 W mercury arc lamp (USH102D, UShio) directed through a 12% neutral density filter (Olympus), a 535 nm band-pass excitation filter (HQ535/30m, Chroma), and a 550 nm single-edge dichroic mirror (Chroma). Fluorescence emission is collected by a 1.4 NA 63× oil immersion objective lens (UPlanSApo, Zeiss), and a 585 nm emission filter (D585/30m, Chroma) is used in the detection path. For each experiment, the motion of at least 100 in-frame particles is acquired using a CCD camera (1024 × 1024 pixels, 5.86 μm pixel size) for ∼1000 frames at a frame rate of 59 Hz for enhanced short-time resolution. All experiments are conducted at T = 22.5 °C. The center-of-mass positions of tracer particles are determined using a custom Matlab program, and particle positions in consecutive video frames are linked to form trajectories. (41, 42) Static errors during microrheology experiments are determined by tracking the MSD of probe particles arrested in 3% w/w agarose gel, which is used to correct particle trajectories. (43, 44) Assembled peptide structures are not affected by the addition of probe particles, which suggests that the particles generally exhibit minimal nonspecific interactions with the peptides in solution. (45)

Structural and Optical Characterization

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used for structural characterization of assembled peptides. In these experiments, π-conjugated oligopeptide samples are rapidly frozen using liquid nitrogen, dried under a vacuum to maximally retain sample morphology in solution, and imaged using a Hitachi S4800 high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Confocal fluorescence microscopy was also used for optical and structural characterization of microstructure. In these experiments, a multiphoton confocal microscope (Zeiss 710) was used to determine the fluorescence emission spectra of both unassembled and assembled DFAG-OT4 and DFAG-PDI. Here, DFAG-OT4 samples were illuminated using two-photon excitation at a wavelength of 780 nm using a Ti-Sapphire laser (Mai-Tai, Spectraphysics), and DFAG-PDI samples were illuminated using one-photon excitation at a wavelength of 405 nm. UV–vis absorption spectra were determined using a Cary 5000 UV–vis spectrometer (Agilent). CD spectra were obtained using a JASCO J-815 CD spectrometer.

Supporting Information


The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.7b00260.

  • General solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methods for DFAG-OT4 and DFAG-PDI peptides; analytical HPLC traces for DFAG-PDI peptides; electrospray ionization mass spectrometry spectra of pure DFAG-PDI peptides; NMR spectra of purified DFAG-PDI peptides; methods and particle tracking microrheology for acid-vapor-induced assembly of DFAG-OT4 peptide; particle tracking microrheology for DFAG-OT4 peptide under basic (low pH) conditions; absorption and fluorescence emission spectra for unassembled and assembled DFAG-OT4 and DFAG-PDI peptides through acid-vapor-induced assembly and concentration-driven assembly (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Author Information


    • Charles M. Schroeder- †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States;  Orcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0001-6023-2274;  Email: [email protected]
    • Yuecheng Zhou - †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States

    • Bo Li - †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States

    • Songsong Li - †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States

    • Herdeline Ann M. Ardoña- †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States;  Orcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0003-0640-1262
    • William L. Wilson - Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States

    • John D. Tovar- †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and §Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States;  #Department of Chemistry and ⊥Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States;  Center for Nanoscale Systems, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States;  Orcidhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-9650-2210
  • The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Acknowledgment


The authors acknowledge the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory for facilities and instrumentation, and we thank Andrew Ferguson for useful discussions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences Research (BES) under Award No. SC-0011847. H.A.M.A. acknowledges a graduate fellowship through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (International Student Research Fellowship) and the Schlumberger Foundation (Faculty for the Future Fellowship).

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    Units of 2-ureido-4-pyrimidone that dimerize strongly in a self-complementary array of four cooperative hydrogen bonds were used as the assocg. end group in reversible self-assembling polymer systems. The unidirectional design of the binding sites prevents uncontrolled multidirectional assocn. or gelation. Linear polymers and reversible networks were formed from monomers with two and three binding sites, resp. The thermal and environmental control over lifetime and bond strength makes many properties, such as viscosity, chain length, and compn., tunable in a way not accessible to traditional polymers. Hence, polymer networks with thermodynamically controlled architectures can be formed, for use in, for example, coatings and hot melts, where a reversible, strongly temp.-dependent rheol. is highly advantageous.

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GP-1 Assembly Gel, 1oz Packet

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Self-assembly of iron oxide precursor micelles driven by magnetic stirring time in sol-gel coatings

López Sánchez, Jesús y Marín Palacios, María Pilar y Carmona Tejero, Noemí y Rodríguez de la Fuente, Óscar y Serrano, A. y Campo, A. del y Abuín, M. y Salas Colera, E. y Muñoz Noval, A: y Castro, G. R. (2019) Self-assembly of iron oxide precursor micelles driven by magnetic stirring time in sol-gel coatings. RSC Advances, 9 (31). pp. 17571-17580. ISSN 2046-2069

URL Oficial: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ra03283e



Resumen

The purpose of this work is to fabricate self-assembled microstructures by the sol-gel method and study the morphological, structural and compositional dependence of epsilon-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles embedded in silica when glycerol (GLY) and cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) are added as steric agents simultaneously. The combined action of a polyalcohol and a surfactant significantly modifies the morphology of the sample giving rise to a different microstructure in each of the studied cases (1, 3 and 7 days of magnetic stirring time). This is due to the fact that the addition of these two compounds leads to a considerable increase in gelation time as GLY can interact with the alkoxide group on the surface of the iron oxide precursor micelle and/or be incorporated into the hydrophilic chains of CTAB. This last effect causes the iron oxide precursor micelles to be interconnected forming aggregates whose size and structure depend on the magnetic stirring time of the sol-gel synthetic route. In this paper, crystalline structure, composition, purity and morphology of the sol-gel coatings densified at 960 degrees C are examined. Emphasis is placed on the nominal percentage of the different iron oxides found in the samples and on the morphological and structural differences. This work implies the possibility of patterning epsilon-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles in coatings and controlling their purity by an easy one-pot sol-gel method.


Tipo de documento:Artículo
Información Adicional:

©2019 The Author(s)
This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019
Artículo firmado por más de diez autores.
Dr Paloma Almodovar is acknowledged for her fruitful discussions about CRM and SEM characterization. The authors also acknowledge the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Economy and Competitiveness for financing the project MAT2015-65445-C2-1-R, MAT2017-86450-C4-1-R, MAT2015-67557-C2-1-P, by the Comunidad de Madrid S2013/MIT-2850 NANOFRONTMAG and H2020 AMPHIBIAN Project ID: 720853. The authors are also grateful to the BM25-SpLine staff for their valuable technical support beyond their duties and for the financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) and The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) under Grant No. PIE 2010-6OE-013, The ESRF - The European Synchrotron, MICIU and CSIC are acknowledged for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities. A. S. acknowledges the financial support from the Comunidad de Madrid for an "Atraccion de Talento Investigador" contract (No. 2017-t2/IND5395).

Palabras clave:Ray-absorption spectroscopy; Coercivity field variations; Epsilon-fe2o3 phase; Fe2o3/sio2; Origin; Edge
Materias:Ciencias > Física > Física de materiales
Ciencias > Física > Física del estado sólido
Código ID:57169
Depositado:04 Oct 2019 15:14
última Modificación:07 Oct 2019 07:28

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Temperature driven assembly of like-charged nanoparticles at non-planar liquid-liquid or gel-air interfaces

Cited 0 times inthomson ciCited 0 times inthomson ci

Temperature driven assembly of like-charged nanoparticles at non-planar liquid-liquid or gel-air interfaces

Title
Temperature driven assembly of like-charged nanoparticles at non-planar liquid-liquid or gel-air interfaces
Author
Zhuang, Qiang; Walker, David A.; Browne, Kevin P.; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Beniah, Goliath; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.
Issue Date
2014
Publisher
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
Citation
NANOSCALE, v.6, no.9, pp.4475 - 4479
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with 2-fluoro-4-mercaptophenol (FMP) ligands form densely packed NP films at liquid-liquid interfaces, including surfaces of liquid droplets. The process is driven by a gradual lowering of temperature that changes the solution's pH, altering both the energy of interfacial adsorption for NPs traveling from solution to the interface as well as the balance between electrostatic and vdW interactions between these particles. Remarkably, the system shows hysteresis in the sense that the films remain stable when the temperature is increased back to the initial value. The same phenomena apply to gel-air interfaces, enabling patterning of these wet materials with durable NP films.
URI
https://scholarworks.unist.ac.kr/handle/201301/33097
URL
https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/NR/c3nr05113g#!divAbstract
DOI
10.1039/c3nr05113g
ISSN
2040-3364
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