Black telepathy

Black telepathy DEFAULT

Is Telepathy Allowed or Is Controled?

Introduction

Telepathy is not just a myth and science fiction. Science has proven that to some extent is possible.

The history of telepathy goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. Egyptians believed that a spirit would send messages from one person to another in dreams. The Greeks also believed dreams were a way to send messages. Ancient knowledge as dreams, telepathy, etc. was preserved by many indigenous people.

The term telepathy was first used in 1882 by psychologist F.W. Myers who helped start the Society of Psychical Research. “There is no scientific proof that human telepathy exists. Telepathy means direct communication from one mind to another. It refers to the supposed ability to perceive the thoughts of others without the use of recognized senses.” In another words, telepathic communication is the ability to transmit information from one mind to another and telepathic perception is the ability to receive information from another mind.

When telepathy influences another person’s thoughts or beliefs, it is called mind control. Within USA is quite developed. Unfortunately, a lot of people are applying mind control at night when it’s time for us to sleep. Mind control involves influence and can include outside props or strategies to achieve its goal. Since, it involves influences of other people (known and unknown) it can be very beneficial or crucifixion. It can be helpful for us to make life changes and it can also create destructions for a lifetime. All depends on the person who is imposing his will (power) into somebody else’s mind. This kind of knowledge should possess only people with pure hearts; however, reality is different. Indigenous people are taught sacred knowledge in order to keep it alive from generation to generation.

When one starts to naturally experience the awakening of telepathic powers, he/she feels more energized. One will start to refrain from negativity and thus, your friends will either be happy or you or they will fall away. Those who are used to talking about negative things will fall away first, since they will lose interest in your company. My experience is that many are trying to prevent that one person will have more telepathic powers then others. Negative people are not pure in their hearts, minds, souls and their bodies. They are looking only how to benefit, or they want to control somebody else’s life and decisions in order to satisfy their own or another person’s goals. Many are paid for such kind of “jobs”. Such kind of destructions are creating bad karmas for the person who is imposing their will into somebody else’s mind and for receiver of that influence. Such kind of situations are an open window for major psychic attacks in order to block spiritual progress of another person. Instead to focus on our own challenges and try to resolve them one by one, we are exposed to additional suffering just because of others who are not interested to resolve their own problems. It is easier to create destructions. Such kind of people do not want to dig deep inside their own soul and see how they can improve their life and/or health. We are all here, on this planet earth to learn and not to judge. Nobody has the right to judge others because nobody knows somebody else’s experiences and abilities to learn from them.

“Everyone occasionally suffers from depression, and some people are stricken with major depression, in which the sadness and hopelessness last more than two weeks and interfere with carrying on with life. In recent decades, more people have been diagnosed with depression, especially in younger cohorts, and the conventional wisdom is captured in the tag line of a recent public television documentary: “A silent epidemic is ravaging the nation and killing our kids.” We have just seen that the nation is not suffering from an epidemic of unhappiness, loneliness, or suicide, so an epidemic of depression seems unlikely, and it turns out to be an illusion” [1].

Brian Clegg mentioned in his book Extra Sensory: “Not only is the flexibility Rhine describes dangerous, in that it can be easy to ascribe results to conditions that didn’t actually apply; there is also the problem that is almost impossible to ignore any positive results coming out of the badly controlled trials” [2].

Natural Way of Spiritual Growth Is Changing Our Perceptions

Arguments that used to keep us up at night will start to have different meaning. All the things that we placed at utmost importance will lose their relevance. One will choose to put more importance on spiritual things. Everything we will see with new eyes. The third eye it awakens in the pineal gland. The universe starts to put new people in our path and new opportunities for better life. One will gain clarity about others and different situations. This, in turn will cause priority changes.

Plant the Seedling of Devotion in The Mind

Man should be the master of his behavior; he should not be led away by the impulse of the moment; he must be conscious always of what is good for him. He should so carry on his daily tasks that he does not make others suffer or suffer himself. That is the sign of intelligent living. You should not give way to fits of anger or grief or elation or despair. The confusion you exhibited now was the result of Thaamasik (dark and dull) and Raajasik (emotional) qualities. Be Saathwik, calm and unruffled and collected. The more you develop charity for all beings, contrition at your own faults, fear of wrong and fear of God - the more firmly established you are in Shaanthi (peace).

In this spiritual sphere of mental peace and inner joy, the responsibility for success or failure is entirely one’s own. You have no right to shift it on to others. The fire will go out if the fuel is over; so, stop feeding it with fuel. Do not add fuel to the fire of the senses. Detach the mind from the temporary and attach it to the eternal. The negative Shakthi (power) and the positive Shakthi both together will give the light. Plant the seedling of Bhakthi (devotion), namely, the preliminary exercise of Naamasmarana (remembering the Lord’s name), in the mind. That will grow into a tree with the branches of virtue, service, sacrifice, love, equanimity, fortitude and courage. You swallow food, but you are not aware how that food is transformed into energy, intelligence, emotion and health. In the same way, just swallow this food for the spirit, this Naamasmarana, and watch how it gets transmuted as virtue and the rest without your being aware of it” [3].

What Is the Science Behind It?

Recent studies have reported direct transmission of brain activity between two animals, between two humans and even between a human and an animal. These “brain-to-brain interfaces” allow for direct transmission of brain activity.

“Starting around 2013, several groups of researchers began experimenting with telepathy. These researchers worked in an area of science called neuroscience. Neuroscientists study the brain and how it works. In their experiments, the researchers had some positive results with a process known as synaptic transmission.

The brain is part of the nervous system. This system houses all the nerve cells in the body. Synapses are where nerve cells in the body meet. The synapses carry chemical and electrical signals throughout the brain and body. Normally, this is done without the person even thinking about it. For example, when a person moves their arm, the brain sends a message to the arm to move. That message is carried over the brain’s synapses. The person doesn’t think about moving their arm. It just happens because the brain sees that the arm needs to move and sends the message” [4].

Recent advances in brain-computer interfaces are turning the science fantasy of transmitting thoughts directly from one brain to another into reality

“Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, commented in 2015 that he believes the future of communication is in telepathy. He thinks technology will be the key to sending thoughts directly to other people. While it might sound like a distant dream, he may not be wrong.” [5].

“The building that house Facebook’s headquarters are on a large campus in California. The complex is visible from the main road, and there isn’t much mystery about it. However, one mysterious part of it is a research lab called Building 8. Not much is known about what projects are being developed at the company. But Facebook has several scientists and technology experts working for them.

One new technology could involve reading people’s minds. A neuroscientist works for the company. He is known for inventing a mind-operated prosthetic arm. Building 8 might be working on more mind-controlled technology, including computers. Job postings for positions in Building 8 seem to be looking for employees whose skills relate to telepathy and technology

Only time will tell what’s really going on there. But if Facebook is successful in implementing “brain-to-brain” communication, maybe they won’t even have to tell the public what’s going on – the public will just know” [6].

I experienced by myself very destructive energies at the Facebook internet pages since I had a lot of friends involved at my personal pages. I am assuming that this feeling was part of Facebook’s experiments. If one is very active and popular at personal Facebook page, it allows others to use that page without communicating with the “owner of particular page” for various goals including business and political conversations. If this is the case it will be for the “owner of the personal page” hard to close the Facebook account especially if one does not have access to it, anymore. Japanese scientists believe that we can create earth changes with computers (earthquakes…). This happens when there are opposite energies involved with a higher power. Unfortunately, some people (unconsciously and/or consciously) are creating car accidents by using opposite energies/opinions of majority people. All mentioned above it leads me to conclusion that most car accidents are energy work. People who are sending negative energies can badly influence others. Such kind of situations has a significant impact on our health, life decisions, accidents, etc.

Negative People More Likely to Be Involved in Car Accidents, Study Finds

Being a pessimist could make you more prone to being involved in car accidents, according to a new study. Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Science’s Institute of Psychology in Beijing have studied the character traits of drivers to discover whether someone’s outlook on life could influence their likelihood of crashing.

The study, published in the journal Plus One, analyzed 38 drivers with at least three years’ driving experience. Both groups were surveyed on their driving habits, including whether or not they wore a seatbelt or would drive through a red light. Each participant was then asked to identify weather a series of photographs had a red or blue border – the images in the photographs were chosen to incite negative, positive or neutral emotions in the participants. The study revealed drivers classed as “dangerous” took longer to identify the color of the border when shown a negative image. This, according to the researchers, indicated a negativity bias – the name given by psychologists to the human tendency to be more influenced by negative experiences. Negativity bias was not detected among drivers in the “safe” group, and there was no difference in their response time to photos. The emotional effect creates a “visual tunneling”, hindering a person’s ability to be fully lucid in the present and making it more difficult for a driver to think swiftly and clearly.

Previous researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior, said the study’s researchers led by Dr. Jing Chai. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in more crashes compared with less-biased drivers.

Overall, anger increases someone’s susceptibility of colliding on the road. But, understanding that a high number of accidents may be due to someone’s attitude could help researchers delve further into understanding what causes human error on the road. Researchers concluded: “The influence of negativity bias provides a possible explanation for the effects of individual difference on dangerous driving and traffic crashes” (7).

It is proven that psychic attacks effects/influences our emotional state of mind.

“When neuroscientists wanted to create telepathy between two human beings, they focused on synapses and how they send messages. They attached special electrodes to a helmet. The helmet was worn by a person in the experiment. The electrodes could read the brain activity of the person wearing the helmet. In one test, the person was giving a greeting. In another test, the person was making a hand movement. The electrodes read the activity going on in the brain of the person performing the activity. That activity was then translated into binary code and sent to another person far away. In one case, the other person was 5,000 miles away! On the receiving end, the coded messages were decoded. Then the decoded messages were fed to the receiving person’s brain using a process known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

The technology didn’t work perfectly, but it worked well enough for researchers to believe they were closer to creating telepathy. According to researchers, this type of development could be useful for soldiers on the battlefield who need to receive instructions from a commanding officer or from another soldier” [8].

Soldiers at Vietnam war using telepathy. Sacred knowledge was one of the most important ways for survival and returns back home; however, many still suffers because of war cruelty. Government is using indigenous people for wars because they inherent sacred knowledge of telepathy and much more.

Reading the Brainwaves

”Brain-to-brain interface is made possible because of the way brain cells communicate with each other. Cell-to-cell communication occurs via a process known as synaptic transmission, where chemical signals are passed between cells resulting in electrical spikes in the receiving cell. Synaptic transmission forms the basis of all brain activity, including motor control, memory, perception and emotion because cells are connected in a network, brain activity produces a synchronized pulse of electrical activity, which is called a “brain wave”.

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Brainwaves are detected using a technique known as electroencephalography (EEG), where a swimming-cap like device is worn over the scalp and electrical activity detected via electrodes. The pattern of activity is then recorded and interpreted using computer software. This kind of brain-machine interface forms the basis of neural prosthesis technology and is used to restore brain function. This may sound far-fetched, but neural prostheses are actually commonplace, just think of the Cochlear implant!” [9].

Meditation and Yoga Breathing

“From the earliest times, the need to quiet our emotions has been seen as an essential step on the road to spiritual development. To access high wisdom and guidance, our emotional bodies must be still and calm. In most spiritual disciplines, the emphasis is put on quieting the mental body. When we refine our bodies, it’s best to work from the bottom up. Quieting the mind becomes easier when our emotional bodies are calm. As Jacob Needleman points out, Socrates and Plato both wrote of a universal intelligence that could awaken in man only when our emotions are mastered” [10].

Refining the emotional body is one of the biggest challenges. Emotional turmoil will block our reception of information from the subtle planes. This is the reason why we got caught in illusions during meditation and we are receiving false information that can be against us. It is very important to reach “empty space” before we believe in any information that are coming into our mind. This state of mind is very easy to achieve via active meditation. For over 30 years I was teaching mandala workshops and realized that active meditation combines three components. It can be any kind of slowmotion action that combines three components and it brings us into “empty space” where everything is possible. This is the state of mind where is no time and therefore it allows us to be in now. It by itself brings best solutions for our better daily life. So called “empty space” is Samadhi.

When we rest at this stage we do not age anymore. There are different stages of Samadhi. Some can reach this state of mind for a second, some for few minutes, some for hours, days, etc. It is available to everybody, anytime, everywhere.

“The meditators in our study had an average of twenty-one years of a daily active practice; the nonmeditators had no active meditation practice, and most of them had never meditated at all. We predicted that the brain would show differences in electrical activity before unpredictable audio tones versus light flashes (because the brain processes these stimuli in different regions, thus creating different future brain states that might “ripple” backward in time).

The results of the experiment indicated that the nonmeditators showed no significant differences in brain activity before they received audio tones versus light flashes. But in the meditator’ group, five of the thirty-two EEG electrodes showed statistically significant differences before receiving audio versus light stimuli (each electrode with odds against chance of 20 to 1) one second before the stimuli [11].

“This means that the meditators’ brains behaved dramatically differently just before the audio tone, as compared to the nonmeditators’ brain” [12].

Yoga breathing techniques are very useful for emotional, mind and body clearing; however, they have to be performed, daily.

“In this spiritual sphere of mental peace and inner joy, the responsibility for success or failure is entirely one’s own. You have no right to shift it on to others. The fire will go our if the fuel is over; so, stop feeding it with fuel. Do not add fuel to the fire of the senses. Detach the mind from the temporary and attach it to the eternal. The negative Shakthi (power) and the positive Shakthi both together will give the light” [13].

Acknowledgement

None.

Conflict of Interests

No conflict of interest.

References

  1. Steven Pinker (2018) Enlightenment Now, New York, USA, Penguin Random House LLC, pp. 280.
  2. Brian Clegg (2013) Extra Sensory, New York, USA, St.Martin’s Press, pp. 161.
  3. Sri Satya Sai Baba (1961), Discourse Udumalpet Believe in Yourself, Bengaluru, India, Sri Satya Sai Baba Books and Publications Trust.
  4. Cathleen Small (2019) The Science of Mind Control and Telepathy, New York, USA, Cavendish Square Publishing LLC., pp. 16.
  5. Cathleen Small (2019) The Science of Mind Control and Telepathy, New York, USA, Cavendish Square Publishing LLC., pp. 35.
  6. Cathleen Small (2019) The Science of Mind Control and Telepathy, New York, USA, Cavendish Square Publishing LLC., pp. 38.
  7. Alexandra Sims (2016) The Independent News/Science, London, Independence Digital News and Media.
  8. Cathleen Small (2019) The Science of Mind Control and Telepathy, New York, USA, Cavendish Square Publishing LLC., pp. 17.
  9. Kristyn Bates (2015) Brain-to-brain Interfaces: the science of telepathy, USA, The Conversation, Academic Rigor, Journalistic flair.
  10. Coleen Mauro (2015) Spiritual Telepathy, Quest Books, Wheaton, IL, pp: 92.
  11. Dean Radin PhD, Supernormal Science, Yoga, and The Evidence for Extraordinary Psychic Abilities, New York, USA, Deepak Chopra Books, pp. 159.
  12. Dean Radin PhD, Supernormal Science, Yoga, and The Evidence for Extraordinary Psychic Abilities, New York, USA, Deepak Chopra Books, pp. 160.
  13. Sri Satya Sai Baba (1961) Discourse Udumalpet Believe in Yourself, Bengaluru, India, Sri Satya Sai Baba Books and Publications Trust.
Sours: https://irispublishers.com/ojcam/fulltext/is-telepathy-allowed-or-is-controled.ID.000515.php

Telepathy

For other uses, see Telepathy (disambiguation).

This article is about the paranormal phenomenon. For the performing art, see Mentalism.

Fictional/magical phenomenon

Telepathy (from the Greek τῆλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθος/-πάθεια, pathos or -patheia meaning "feeling, perception, passion, affliction, experience")[3][4] is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was first coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers,[5] a founder of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR),[6] and has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference.[6][7]

Telepathy experiments have historically been criticized for a lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no good evidence that telepathy exists, and the topic is generally considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience.[8][9][10][11]

Origins of the concept[edit]

According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research.[12][13] As the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena (e.g., animal magnetism), with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.[13]

Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed.[14]

Thought reading[edit]

In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop claimed no supernatural powers and ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity (reading thoughts from unconscious bodily cues).[15] Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats successfully such as correctly identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject who knew the correct answer. He would hold the hand or wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a highly trained skill to detect ideomotor movements.[16]

Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland. He was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and then attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime. Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. [17]

Case studies[edit]

In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters (Mary, Alice, Maud, Kathleen, and Emily) were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a later experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud.[18][19]George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud:

For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference... ...the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, and originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how easily men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.[20]

Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender.[21][22][23][24][25] Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917.[26][27][28][29] The subjects produced below chance expectations.[30]

Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote the Zancigs performed telepathy. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper.[31]

In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy. The results were entirely negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number between one and one-thousand. Out of 2,010 replies, none was correct. This is below the theoretical chance figure of two correct replies in such a situation.[32]

In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), V. J. Woolley who was at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part. The experiment involved 'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy.[33][34]

A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife. She attempted to duplicate 290 pictures which were drawn by her husband. Sinclair claimed Mary successfully duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not conducted in a controlled scientific laboratory environment.[35] Science writer Martin Gardner suggested that the possibility of sensory leakage during the experiment had not been ruled out:

In the first place, an intuitive wife, who knows her husband intimately, may be able to guess with a fair degree of accuracy what he is likely to draw—particularly if the picture is related to some freshly recalled event the two experienced in common. At first, simple pictures like chairs and tables would likely predominate, but as these are exhausted, the field of choice narrows and pictures are more likely to be suggested by recent experiences. It is also possible that Sinclair may have given conversational hints during some of the tests—hints which in his strong will to believe, he would promptly forget about. Also, one must not rule out the possibility that in many tests, made across the width of a room, Mrs. Sinclair may have seen the wiggling of the top of a pencil, or arm movements, which would convey to her unconscious a rough notion of the drawing.[35]

The Turner-Ownbey long distance telepathy experiment was discovered to contain flaws. May Frances Turner positioned herself in the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory whilst Sara Ownbey claimed to receive transmissions 250 miles away. For the experiment Turner would think of a symbol and write it down whilst Ownbey would write her guesses.[36] The scores were highly successful and both records were supposed to be sent to J. B. Rhine; however, Ownbey sent them to Turner. Critics pointed out this invalidated the results as she could have simply written her own record to agree with the other. When the experiment was repeated and the records were sent to Rhine the scores dropped to average.[36][37][38]

Another example is the experiment carried out by the author Harold Sherman with the explorer Hubert Wilkins who carried out their own experiment in telepathy for five and a half months starting in October 1937. This took place when Sherman was in New York and Wilkins was in the Arctic. The experiment consisted of Sherman and Wilkins at the end of each day to relax and visualise a mental image or "thought impression" of the events or thoughts they had experienced in the day and then to record those images and thoughts on paper in a diary. The results at the end when comparing Sherman's and Wilkins' diaries were claimed to be more than 60 percent.[39]

The full results of the experiments were published in 1942 in a book by Sherman and Wilkins titled Thoughts Through Space. In the book both Sherman and Wilkins had written they believed they had demonstrated that it was possible to send and receive thought impressions from the mind of one person to another.[40] The magician John Booth wrote the experiment was not an example of telepathy as a high percentage of misses had occurred. Booth wrote it was more likely that the "hits" were the result of "coincidence, law of averages, subconscious expectancy, logical inference or a plain lucky guess".[41] A review of their book in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry cast doubt on their experiment noting "the study was published five years after it was conducted, arouses suspicion on the validity of the conclusions.[42]

In 1948, on the BBC radio Maurice Fogel made the claim that he could demonstrate telepathy. This intrigued the journalist Arthur Helliwell who wanted to discover his methods. He found that Fogel's mind reading acts were all based on trickery as he relied on information about members of his audience before the show started. Helliwell exposed Fogel's methods in a newspaper article. Although Fogel managed to fool some people into believing he could perform genuine telepathy, the majority of his audience knew he was a showman.[43]

In a series of experiments Samuel Soal and his assistant K. M. Goldney examined 160 subjects over 128,000 trials and obtained no evidence for the existence of telepathy.[44] Soal tested Basil Shackleton and Gloria Stewart between 1941 and 1943 in over five hundred sittings and over twenty thousand guesses. Shackleton scored 2890 compared with a chance expectation of 2308 and Gloria scored 9410 compared with a chance level of 7420. It was later discovered the results had been tampered with. Gretl Albert who was present during many of the experiments said she had witnessed Soal altering the records during the sessions.[44] Betty Marwick discovered Soal had not used the method of random selection of numbers as he had claimed. Marwick showed that there had been manipulation of the score sheets and all experiments reported by Soal had thereby become discredited.[45][46]

In 1979 the physicists John G. Taylor and Eduardo Balanovski wrote the only scientifically feasible explanation for telepathy could be electromagnetism (EM) involving EM fields. In a series of experiments the EM levels were many orders of magnitude lower than calculated and no paranormal effects were observed. Both Taylor and Balanovski wrote their results were a strong argument against the validity of telepathy.[47]

Research in anomalistic psychology has discovered that in some cases telepathy can be explained by a covariation bias. In an experiment (Schienle et al. 1996) 22 believers and 20 skeptics were asked to judge the covariation between transmitted symbols and the corresponding feedback given by a receiver. According to the results the believers overestimated the number of successful transmissions whilst the skeptics made accurate hit judgments.[48] The results from another telepathy experiment involving 48 undergraduate college students (Rudski, 2002) were explained by hindsight and confirmation biases.[49]

In parapsychology[edit]

Within parapsychology, telepathy, often along with precognition and clairvoyance, is described as an aspect of extrasensory perception (ESP) or "anomalous cognition" that parapsychologists believe is transferred through a hypothetical psychic mechanism they call "psi".[50] Parapsychologists have reported experiments they use to test for telepathic abilities. Among the most well known are the use of Zener cards and the Ganzfeld experiment.

Types[edit]

Several forms of telepathy have been suggested:[7]

  • Latent telepathy, formerly known as "deferred telepathy",[51] describes a transfer of information with an observable time-lag between transmission and reception.[7]
  • Retrocognitive,[failed verification] precognitive, and intuitive[failed verification] telepathy describes the transfer of information about the past, future or present state of an individual's mind to another individual.[7]
  • Emotive telepathy, also known as remote influence[52] or emotional transfer, describes the transfer of kinesthetic sensations through altered states.
  • Superconscious telepathy describes use of the supposed superconscious[53] to access the collective wisdom of the human species for knowledge.

Zener Cards[edit]

Main article: Zener cards

Zener cards are marked with five distinctive symbols. When using them, one individual is designated the "sender" and another the "receiver". The sender selects a random card and visualizes the symbol on it, while the receiver attempts to determine that symbol telepathically. Statistically, the receiver has a 20% chance of randomly guessing the correct symbol, so to demonstrate telepathy, they must repeatedly score a success rate that is significantly higher than 20%.[54] If not conducted properly, this method is vulnerable to sensory leakage and card counting.[54]

J. B. Rhine's experiments with Zener cards were discredited due to the discovery that sensory leakage or cheating could account for all his results such as the subject being able to read the symbols from the back of the cards and being able to see and hear the experimenter to note subtle clues.[55] Once Rhine took precautions in response to criticisms of his methods, he was unable to find any high-scoring subjects.[56] Due to the methodological problems, parapsychologists no longer utilize card-guessing studies.[57]

Dream telepathy[edit]

Parapsychological studies into dream telepathy were carried out at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York led by Stanley Krippner and Montague Ullman. They concluded the results from some of their experiments supported dream telepathy.[58] However, the results have not been independently replicated.[59][60][61][62] The psychologist James Alcock has written the dream telepathy experiments at Maimonides have failed to provide evidence for telepathy and "lack of replication is rampant."[63]

The picture target experiments that were conducted by Krippner and Ullman were criticized by C. E. M. Hansel. According to Hansel there were weaknesses in the design of the experiments in the way in which the agent became aware of their target picture. Only the agent should have known the target and no other person until the judging of targets had been completed, however, an experimenter was with the agent when the target envelope was opened. Hansel also wrote there had been poor controls in the experiment as the main experimenter could communicate with the subject.[64]

An attempt to replicate the experiments that used picture targets was carried out by Edward Belvedere and David Foulkes. The finding was that neither the subject nor the judges matched the targets with dreams above chance level.[65] Results from other experiments by Belvedere and Foulkes were also negative.[66]

Ganzfeld experiment[edit]

When using the Ganzfeld experiment to test for telepathy, one individual is designated as the receiver and is placed inside a controlled environment where they are deprived of sensory input, and another person is designated as the sender and is placed in a separate location. The receiver is then required to receive information from the sender. The nature of the information may vary between experiments.[67]

The Ganzfeld experiment studies that were examined by Ray Hyman and Charles Honorton had methodological problems that were well documented. Honorton reported only 36% of the studies used duplicate target sets of pictures to avoid handling cues.[68] Hyman discovered flaws in all of the 42 Ganzfeld experiments and to access each experiment, he devised a set of 12 categories of flaws. Six of these concerned statistical defects, the other six covered procedural flaws such as inadequate documentation, randomization and security as well as possibilities of sensory leakage.[69] Over half of the studies failed to safeguard against sensory leakage and all of the studies contained at least one of the 12 flaws. Because of the flaws, Honorton agreed with Hyman the 42 Ganzfeld studies could not support the claim for the existence of psi.[69]

Possibilities of sensory leakage in the Ganzfeld experiments included the receivers hearing what was going on in the sender's room next door as the rooms were not soundproof and the sender's fingerprints to be visible on the target object for the receiver to see.[70][71]

Hyman also reviewed the autoganzfeld experiments and discovered a pattern in the data that implied a visual cue may have taken place:

The most suspicious pattern was the fact that the hit rate for a given target increased with the frequency of occurrence of that target in the experiment. The hit rate for the targets that occurred only once was right at the chance expectation of 25%. For targets that appeared twice the hit rate crept up to 28%. For those that occurred three times it was 38%, and for those targets that occurred six or more times, the hit rate was 52%. Each time a videotape is played its quality can degrade. It is plausible then, that when a frequently used clip is the target for a given session, it may be physically distinguishable from the other three decoy clips that are presented to the subject for judging. Surprisingly, the parapsychological community has not taken this finding seriously. They still include the autoganzfeld series in their meta-analyses and treat it as convincing evidence for the reality of psi.[69]

Hyman wrote the autoganzfeld experiments were flawed because they did not preclude the possibility of sensory leakage.[69] In 2010, Lance Storm, Patrizio Tressoldi, and Lorenzo Di Risio analyzed 29 ganzfeld studies from 1997 to 2008. Of the 1,498 trials, 483 produced hits, corresponding to a hit rate of 32.2%. This hit rate is statistically significant with p < .001. Participants selected for personality traits and personal characteristics thought to be psi-conducive were found to perform significantly better than unselected participants in the ganzfeld condition.[72] Hyman (2010) published a rebuttal to Storm et al. According to Hyman "reliance on meta-analysis as the sole basis for justifying the claim that an anomaly exists and that the evidence for it is consistent and replicable is fallacious. It distorts what scientists mean by confirmatory evidence." Hyman wrote the ganzfeld studies have not been independently replicated and have failed to produce evidence for telepathy.[73] Storm et al. published a response to Hyman claiming the ganzfeld experimental design has proved to be consistent and reliable but parapsychology is a struggling discipline that has not received much attention so further research on the subject is necessary.[74] Rouder et al. 2013 wrote that critical evaluation of Storm et al.'s meta-analysis reveals no evidence for telepathy, no plausible mechanism and omitted replication failures.[75] A 2016 paper examined questionable research practices in the ganzfeld experiments.[76]

Twin telepathy[edit]

Twin telepathy is a belief that has been described as a myth in psychological literature. Psychologists Stephen Hupp and Jeremy Jewell have noted that all experiments on the subject have failed to provide any scientific evidence for telepathy between twins.[77] According to Hupp and Jewell there are various behavioral and genetic factors that contribute to the twin telepathy myth "identical twins typically spend a lot of time together and are usually exposed to very similar environments. Thus, it's not at all surprising that they act in similar ways and are adept at anticipating and forecasting each other's reactions to events."[77]

A 1993 study by Susan Blackmore investigated the claims of twin telepathy. In an experiment with six sets of twins one subject would act as the sender and the other the receiver. The sender was given selected objects, photographs or numbers and would attempt to psychically send the information to the receiver. The results from the experiment were negative, no evidence of telepathy was observed.[78]

The skeptical investigator Benjamin Radford has noted that "Despite decades of research trying to prove telepathy, there is no credible scientific evidence that psychic powers exist, either in the general population or among twins specifically. The idea that two people who shared their mother's womb — or even who share the same DNA — have a mysterious mental connection is an intriguing one not borne out in science."[79]

Scientific reception[edit]

A variety of tests have been performed to demonstrate telepathy, but there is no scientific evidence that the power exists.[9][80][81][82] A panel commissioned by the United States National Research Council to study paranormal claims concluded that "despite a 130-year record of scientific research on such matters, our committee could find no scientific justification for the existence of phenomena such as extrasensory perception, mental telepathy or 'mind over matter' exercises... Evaluation of a large body of the best available evidence simply does not support the contention that these phenomena exist."[83] The scientific community considers parapsychology a pseudoscience.[84][85][86][87] There is no known mechanism for telepathy.[88] Philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge has written that telepathy would contradict laws of science and the claim that "signals can be transmitted across space without fading with distance is inconsistent with physics".[89]

Physicist John Taylor has written that the experiments that have been claimed by parapsychologists to support evidence for the existence of telepathy are based on the use of shaky statistical analysis and poor design, and attempts to duplicate such experiments by the scientific community have failed. Taylor also wrote the arguments used by parapsychologists for the feasibility of such phenomena are based on distortions of theoretical physics as well as "complete ignorance" of relevant areas of physics.[90]

Psychologist Stuart Sutherland wrote that cases of telepathy can be explained by people underestimating the probability of coincidences. According to Sutherland, "most stories about this phenomenon concern people who are close to one another - husband and wife or brother and sister. Since such people have much in common, it is highly probable that they will sometimes think the same thought at the same time."[91]Graham Reed, a specialist in anomalistic psychology, noted that experiments into telepathy often involve the subject relaxing and reporting the 'messages' to consist of colored geometric shapes. Reed wrote that these are a common type of hypnagogic image and not evidence for telepathic communication.[92]

Outside of parapsychology, telepathy is generally explained as the result of fraud, self-delusion and/or self-deception and not as a paranormal power.[8][93] Psychological research has also revealed other explanations such as confirmation bias, expectancy bias, sensory leakage, subjective validation and wishful thinking.[94] Virtually all of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena, such as mediumship, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading.[95][96] Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, albeit without claiming paranormal skills. They have identified, described, and developed psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading.

Psychiatry[edit]

The notion of telepathy is not dissimilar to three clinical concepts: delusions of thought insertion/removal and thought broadcasting. This similarity might explain how an individual might come to the conclusion that he or she were experiencing telepathy. Thought insertion/removal is a symptom of psychosis, particularly of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or substance-induced psychosis.[97] Psychiatric patients who experience this symptom falsely believe that some of their thoughts are not their own and that others (e.g., other people, aliens, demons or fallen angels, or conspiring intelligence agencies, or artificial intelligences) are putting thoughts into their minds (thought insertion). Some patients feel as if thoughts are being taken out of their minds or deleted (thought removal). Along with other symptoms of psychosis, delusions of thought insertion may be reduced by antipsychotic medication. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists believe and empirical findings support the idea that people with schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder are particularly likely to believe in telepathy.[98][99][100]

Use in fiction[edit]

See also the categories Fiction about telepathy and Fictional telepaths

Telepathy is a common theme in modern fiction and science fiction, with many extraterrestrials (such as the Protoss in the StarCraft franchise), superheroes, and supervillains having telepathic ability.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Marks, David; Kammann, Richard. (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-106. ISBN 1-57392-798-8
  2. ^Hyman, Ray. Evaluating Parapsychological Claims. In Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. (2007). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216-231. ISBN 978-0521608343
  3. ^Telepathy. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved December 06, 2012.
  4. ^Following the model of sympathy and empathy.
  5. ^Hamilton, Trevor (2009). Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian search for life after death. Imprint Academic. p. 121. ISBN .
  6. ^ abCarroll, Robert Todd (2005). "The Skeptic's Dictionary; Telepathy". Skepdic.com. Retrieved 2006-09-13.
  7. ^ abcdGlossary of Parapsychological terms - TelepathyArchived 2006-09-27 at the Wayback Machine — Parapsychological Association. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  8. ^ abFelix Planer. (1980). Superstition. Cassell. p. 218. ISBN 0-304-30691-6 "Many experiments have attempted to bring scientific methods to bear on the investigation of the subject. Their results based on literally millions of tests, have made it abundantly clear that there exists no such phenomenon as telepathy, and that the seemingly successful scores have relied either on illusion, or on deception."
  9. ^ abJan Dalkvist (1994). Telepathic Group Communication of Emotions as a Function of Belief in Telepathy. Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm University. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  10. ^Willem B. Drees (28 November 1998). Religion, Science and Naturalism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 242–. ISBN . Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  11. ^Spencer Rathus. (2011). Psychology: Concepts and Connections. Cengage Learning. p. 143. ISBN 978-1111344856 "There is no adequate scientific evidence that people can read other people's minds. Research has not identified one single indisputable telepath or clairvoyant."
  12. ^Oppenheim, Janet. (1985). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 135-249. ISBN 978-0521265058
  13. ^ abLuckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy, 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. pp. 9-51. ISBN 978-0199249626
  14. ^Dingwall, Eric. (1985). The Need for Responsibility in Parapsychology: My Sixty Years in Psychical Research. In A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 161-174. ISBN 0-87975-300-5 "Let me give an example, such as thought-transference, which is as good as any. When the British SPR was founded, the public was led to believe that at least a scientific survey was to be made, and I have no doubt that even some of those closely associated with the early days thought so too. But Myers, among others, had no such intention and cherished no such illusion. He knew that the primary aim of the Society was not objective experimentation but the establishment of telepathy. (...) What was wanted was proof that mind could communicate with mind apart from the normal avenues, for if mental sharing was a fact when the persons concerned were incarnate it could plausibly be suggested that the same mechanism might operate when death had occurred. Thus the supernatural might be proved by science, and psychical research might become, in the words of Sir William Barrett, a handmaid to religion."
  15. ^Roger Luckhurst. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy: 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0199249626
  16. ^Richard Wiseman. (2011). Paranormality: Why We See What Isn't There. Macmillan. p. 140-142. ISBN 978-0-230-75298-6
  17. ^Thurschwell, Pamela (5 February 2004). "Chapter 4: George Eliot's Prophecies: Coercive Second Sight and Everyday Though Reading". In Nicola Bown; Carolyn Burdett; Pamela Thurschwell; Gillian Beer (eds.). The Victorian Supernatural. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–108. ISBN .
  18. ^Ray Hyman. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. pp. 99-106
  19. ^Gordon Stein. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 688
  20. ^Neher, Andrew. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. p. 220. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
  21. ^Payne, Kenneth Wilcox. (1928). Is Telepathy all Bunk?Popular Science Monthly. p. 119
  22. ^Couttie, Bob. (1988). Forbidden Knowledge: The Paranormal Paradox. Lutterworth Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7188-2686-4 "In the early 1900s Gilbert Murray, who died in 1957, carried out some experiments in ESP in which he was in one room and the sender in a hallway, often with an open door between them. These experiments were successful. Most of the time the target was spoken aloud. When it was not, there were negative results. This is suggestive of a hyperacuity of hearing, especially since on at least one occasion Murray complained about noise coming from a milk-cart in the street next to the one in which the experiments were being carried out."
  23. ^Mauskopf, Seymour H; McVaugh, Michael Rogers. (1980). The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 331. ISBN 978-0801823312
  24. ^Zusne, Leonard; Jones, Warren H. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-805-80507-9
  25. ^Anderson, Rodger. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives and Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary with Bibliographies. McFarland. p. 126. ISBN 0-7864-2770-1
  26. ^Christopher, Milbourne. (1971). ESP, Seers & Psychics. Crowell. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-690-26815-7
  27. ^Berger, Arthur S. (1988). Lives and Letters in American Parapsychology: A Biographical History, 1850-1897. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 0-89950-345-4
  28. ^Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy: 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0199249626
  29. ^Hannan, Caryn. (2008 edition). Connecticut Biographical Dictionary. State History Publications. p. 526. ISBN 1-878592-72-6 "On his return to Harvard in 1916, one of his first enterprises was an investigation of telepathy in the psychology laboratory, which gave negative results."
  30. ^Asprem, Egil. (2014). The Problem of Disenchantment: Scientific Naturalism and Esoteric Discourse, 1900-1939. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 362-364. ISBN 978-9004251922
  31. ^John Booth. (1986). Psychic Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. p. 8
  32. ^Gault, Robert H. (August, 1924). Telepathy Put to the Test. Popular Science. pp. 114-115
  33. ^Mauskopf, Seymour H; McVaugh, Michael Rogers. (1980). The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 36-38. ISBN 978-0801823312
  34. ^Edmunds, Simeon. (1965). Miracles of the Mind: An Introduction to Parapsychology. C. C. Thomas. pp. 26-28
  35. ^ abMartin Gardner, Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science (Courier Dover Publications, 1957) Chapter 25: ESP and PK, available online; accessed July 25, 2010.
  36. ^ abJohn Sladek. (1974). The New Apocrypha: A Guide to Strange Sciences and Occult Beliefs. Panther. pp. 172-174
  37. ^Bergen Evans. (1954). The Spoor of Spooks: And Other Nonsense. Knopf. p. 24
  38. ^C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. pp. 56-58. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
  39. ^Simon Nasht. (2006). The Last Explorer: Hubert Wilkins, Hero of the Great Age of Polar Exploration. Arcade Publishing. pp. 267-268
  40. ^Hubert Wilkins, Harold Sherman. (2004). Thoughts through Space: A Remarkable Adventure in the Realm of Mind. Hampton Roads Publishing. ISBN 1-57174-314-6
  41. ^John Booth. (1986). Psychic Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. p. 69
  42. ^Steiner, Lee R. (1942). Review of Thoughts Through Space. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 12 (4): 745.
  43. ^Lamont, Peter. (2013). Extraordinary Beliefs: A Historical Approach to a Psychological Problem. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-107-01933-1
  44. ^ abLawrie Reznek. (2010). Delusions and the Madness of the Masses. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers . pp. 54-55
  45. ^C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Reevaluation. Prometheus Books. p. 165
  46. ^Betty Markwick. (1985). The establishment of data manipulation in the Soal-Shackleton experiments. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 287-312
  47. ^Taylor, J. G; Balanovski, E. (1979). "Is There Any Scientific Explanation of the Paranormal?". Nature. 279 (5714): 631–633. Bibcode:1979Natur.279..631T. doi:10.1038/279631a0. PMID 450111. S2CID 2885230.
  48. ^Schienle, A.; Vaitl, D.; Stark, R. (1996). "Covariation bias and paranormal belief". Psychological Reports. 78 (1): 291–305. doi:10.2466/pr0.1996.78.1.291. PMID 8839320. S2CID 34062201.
  49. ^Rudski, J. M. (2002). "Hindsight and confirmation biases in an exercise in telepathy". Psychological Reports. 91 (3): 899–906. doi:10.2466/pr0.2002.91.3.899. PMID 12530740. S2CID 24242574.
  50. ^Glossary of Parapsychological terms - ESPArchived 2011-01-11 at the Wayback Machine, Parapsychological Association. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  51. ^Rennie, John (1845), "Test for Telepathy", Scientific American, V3#1 (1847-09-25)
  52. ^Plazo, Joseph R., (2002) "Psychic Seduction." pp.112-114 ISBN 0-9785922-3-9
  53. ^St. Claire, David., (1989) "Instant ESP." pp.40-50
  54. ^ abCarroll, Robert (2006-02-17). "Zener ESP Cards". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
  55. ^Jonathan C. Smith. (2009). Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405181228. "Today, researchers discount the first decade of Rhine's work with Zener cards. Stimulus leakage or cheating could account for all his findings. Slight indentations on the backs of cards revealed the symbols embossed on card faces. Subjects could see and hear the experimenter, and note subtle but revealing facial expressions or changes in breathing."
  56. ^Milbourne Christopher. (1970). ESP, Seers & Psychics. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. p. 28
  57. ^James Alcock. (2011). Back from the Future: Parapsychology and the Bem Affair. Skeptical Inquirer. "Despite Rhine’s confidence that he had established the reality of extrasensory perception, he had not done so. Methodological problems with his experiments eventually came to light, and as a result parapsychologists no longer run card-guessing studies and rarely even refer to Rhine’s work."
  58. ^Ullman, Montague (2003). "Dream telepathy: experimental and clinical findings". In Totton, Nick (ed.). Psychoanalysis and the paranormal: lands of darkness. Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Karnac Books. pp. 14–46. ISBN .
  59. ^Parker, Adrian. (1975). States of Mind: ESP and Altered States of Consciousness. Taplinger. p. 90. ISBN 0-8008-7374-2
  60. ^Clemmer, E. J. (1986). "Not so anomalous observations question ESP in dreams". American Psychologist. 41 (10): 1173–1174. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.41.10.1173.b.
  61. ^Hyman, Ray. (1986). Maimonides dream-telepathy experiments. Skeptical Inquirer 11: 91-92.
  62. ^Neher, Andrew. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. p. 145. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
  63. ^James, Alcock (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance: Reasons to Remain Doubtful about the Existence of Psi". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10: 29–50.
  64. ^Hansel, C. E. M.The Search for a Demonstration of ESP. In Kurtz, Paul. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-127. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
  65. ^Belvedere, E.; Foulkes, D. (1971). "Telepathy and Dreams: A Failure to Replicate". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 33 (3): 783–789. doi:10.2466/pms.1971.33.3.783. PMID 4331356. S2CID 974894.
  66. ^Hansel, C. E. M. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. pp. 141-152. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
  67. ^The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena by Dean I. Radin Harper Edge, ISBN 0-06-251502-0
  68. ^Julie Milton, Richard Wiseman. (2002). A Response to Storm and Ertel (2002). The Journal of Parapsychology. Volume 66: 183-186.
  69. ^ abcdRay Hyman. Evaluating Parapsychological Claims in Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. (2007). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216-231. ISBN 978-0521608343
  70. ^Richard Wiseman, Matthew Smith, Diana Kornbrot. (1996). Assessing possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld. Journal of Parapsychology. Volume 60: 97-128.
  71. ^Robert Todd Carroll. (2014). "Ganzfeld" in The Skeptic's Dictionary.
  72. ^Storm, Tressoldi, Di Risio (July 2010). "Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology"(PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 136 (4): 471–85. doi:10.1037/a0019457. PMID 20565164. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2010-08-18.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  73. ^Hyman, R. (2010). Meta-analysis that conceals more than it reveals: Comment on Storm et alArchived 2013-11-03 at the Wayback Machine. (2010). Psychological Bulletin, 136. pp. 486-490.
  74. ^Storm, L.; Tressoldi, P. E.; Di Risio, L. (2010). "A meta-analysis with nothing to hide: Reply to Hyman (2010)". Psychological Bulletin. 136 (4): 491–494. doi:10.1037/a0019840. PMID 20565166. S2CID 21103309.
  75. ^Rouder, J. N.; Morey, R. D.; Province, J. M. (2013). "A Bayes factor meta-analysis of recent extrasensory perception experiments: Comment on Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010)". Psychological Bulletin. 139 (1): 241–247. doi:10.1037/a0029008. PMID 23294092.
  76. ^Bierman, DJ; Spottiswoode, JP; Bijl, A (2016), "Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology", PLOS ONE, 11 (5): 1, Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153049B, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153049, PMC 4856278, PMID 27144889,
  77. ^ abHupp, Stephen; Jewell, Jeremy. (2015). Great Myths of Child Development. Wiley. pp. 10-16. ISBN 978-1-118-52122-9
  78. ^Wiseman, Richard. (2011). Paranormality: Why We See What Isn't There. Macmillan. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-230-75298-6
  79. ^"The Riddle of Twin Telepathy". Retrieved 2014-06-06.
  80. ^Simon Hoggart, Mike Hutchinson. (1995). Bizarre Beliefs. Richard Cohen Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1573921565 "The trouble is that the history of research into psi is littered with failed experiments, ambiguous experiments, and experiments which are claimed as great successes but are quickly rejected by conventional scientists. There has also been some spectacular cheating."
  81. ^Robert Cogan. (1998). Critical Thinking: Step by Step. University Press of America. p. 227. ISBN 978-0761810674 "When an experiment can't be repeated and get the same result, this tends to show that the result was due to some error in experimental procedure, rather than some real causal process. ESP experiments simply have not turned up any repeatable paranormal phenomena."
  82. ^Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 144. ISBN 978-1573929790 "It is important to realize that, in one hundred years of parapsychological investigations, there has never been a single adequate demonstration of the reality of any psi phenomenon."
  83. ^Thomas Gilovich. (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. Free Press. p. 160
  84. ^Daisie Radner, Michael Radner. (1982). Science and Unreason. Wadsworth. pp. 38-66. ISBN 0-534-01153-5
  85. ^Bunge, Mario (1987). "Why Parapsychology Cannot Become a Science". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 10 (4): 576–577. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00054595.
  86. ^Michael W. Friedlander. (1998). At the Fringes of Science. Westview Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-8133-2200-6 "Parapsychology has failed to gain general scientific acceptance even for its improved methods and claimed successes, and it is still treated with a lopsided ambivalence among the scientific community. Most scientists write it off as pseudoscience unworthy of their time."
  87. ^Massimo Pigliucci, Maarten Boudry. (2013). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University Of Chicago Press p. 158. ISBN 978-0226051963 "Many observers refer to the field as a "pseudoscience". When mainstream scientists say that the field of parapsychology is not scientific, they mean that no satisfying naturalistic cause-and-effect explanation for these supposed effects has yet been proposed and that the field's experiments cannot be consistently replicated."
  88. ^Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0309073097 "One of the reasons scientists have difficulty believing that psi effects are real is that there is no known mechanism by which they could occur. PK action-at-a-distance would presumably employ an action-at-a-distance force that is as yet unknown to science... Similarly, there is no known sense (stimulation and receptor) by which thoughts could travel from one person to another by which the mind could project itself elsewhere in the present, future, or past."
  89. ^Mario Bunge. (1983). Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Volume 6: Epistemology & Methodology II: Understanding the World. Springer. pp. 225-226. ISBN 978-9027716347
    • "Precognition violates the principle of antecedence ("causality"), according to which the effect does not happen before the cause. Psychokinesis violates the principle of conservation of energy as well as the postulate that mind cannot act directly on matter. (If it did no experimenter could trust his own readings of his instruments.) Telepathy and precognition are incompatible with the epistemological principle according to which the gaining of factual knowledge requires sense perception at some point."
    • "Parapsychology makes no use of any knowledge gained in other fields, such as physics and physiological psychology. Moreover, its hypotheses are inconsistent with some basic assumptions of factual science. In particular, the very idea of a disembodied mental entity is incompatible with physiological psychology; and the claim that signals can be transmitted across space without fading with distance is inconsistent with physics."
  90. ^John Taylor. (1980). Science and the Supernatural: An Investigation of Paranormal Phenomena Including Psychic Healing, Clairvoyance, Telepathy, and Precognition by a Distinguished Physicist and Mathematician. Temple Smith. p. 84. ISBN 0-85117-191-5.
  91. ^Sutherland, Stuart. (1994). Irrationality: The Enemy Within. p. 314. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-016726-9
  92. ^Graham Reed. (1988). The Psychology of Anomalous Experience. Prometheus Books. pp. 38-42. ISBN 0-87975-435-4
  93. ^Skepdic.com on ESP. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  94. ^Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0805805086
  95. ^Ian Rowland. (1998). The Full Facts Book of Cold Reading. Ian Rowland Limited: 4th Revised edition. ISBN 978-0955847608
  96. ^Derren Brown. (2007). Tricks of the Mind. Channel 4: New edition. ISBN 978-1905026357
  97. ^Richard Noll. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. Facts on File. p. 359. ISBN 978-0816064052
  98. ^Graham Pickup. (2006). Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. Volume 11, Number 2, Number 2/March 2006. pp. 117-192
  99. ^Andrew Gumley, Matthias Schwannauer. (2006). Staying Well After Psychosis: A Cognitive Interpersonal Approach to Recovery and Relapse Prevention. Wiley. p. 187. ISBN 978-0470021859 "Schizotypy refers to a normal personality construct characterised by an enduring tendency to experience attenuated forms of hallucinatory (e.g. hearing one's own thoughts) and delusional experiences (e.g. beliefs in telepathy)."
  100. ^Mary Townsend. (2013). Essentials of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Concepts of Care in Evidence-Based Practice. F. A. Davis Company. p. 613. ISBN 978-0803638761 "Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are aloof and isolated and behave in a bland and apathetic manner. Magical thinking, ideas of reference, illusions, and depersonalization are part of their everybody world. Examples include superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "six sense;" and beliefs that "others can feel my feelings."

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telepathy
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Scientists Prove That Telepathic Communication Is Within Reach

Enter, Telepathic Communication

In a recent experiment, a person in India said “hola” and “ciao” to three other people in France. Today, the Web, smartphones and international calling might make that not seem like an impressive feat, but it was. The greetings were not spoken, typed or texted. The communication in question happened between the brains of a set of study subjects, marking one of the first instances of brain-to-brain communication on record.

The team, whose members come from Barcelona-based research institute Starlab, French firm Axilum Robotics and Harvard Medical School, published its findings earlier this month in the journal PLOS One. Study co-author Alvaro Pascual-Leone, director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and a neurology professor at Harvard Medical School, hopes this and forthcoming research in the field will one day provide a new communication pathway for patients who might not be able to speak.

“We want to improve the ways people can communicate in the face of limitations—those who might not be able to speak or have sensory impairments,” he says. “Can we work around those limitations and communicate with another person or a computer?”

Pascual-Leone’s experiment was successful—the correspondents neither spoke, nor typed, nor even looked at one another. But he freely concedes that the test was more a proof of concept than anything else, and the technique still has a long way to go. “It’s still very, very early,” he says, “[but] we can show that this is even possible with technology that’s available. It’s the difference between talking on the phone and sending Morse code. To get where we’re going, you need certain steps to be taken first.”

Indeed, the process was drawn out, if not downright inelegant. First, the team had to establish binary-code equivalents of letters; for example “h” is “0-0-1-1-1.” Then, with EEG (electroencephalography) sensors attached to the scalp, the sender moved either his hands or feet to indicate a 1 or a 0. The code then passed to the recipient over email. On the other end, the receiver was blindfolded with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system on his head. (TMS is a non-invasive method of stimulating neurons in the brain; it’s most commonly used to treat depression.) The TMS headset stimulated the recipient’s brain, causing him to see quick flashes of light. A flash was equivalent to a “1” and a blank was a “0.” From there, the code was translated back into text. It took about 70 minutes to relay the message.

Scientists Prove That Telepathic Communication Is Within Reach

There is a bit of contention about the degree to which this approach was actually novel. IEEE Spectrum reports that this recent study is quite similar to one conducted at the University of Washington last year. In that study, researchers used the same EEG-to-TMS setup, but rather than pulsed light, stimulated the brain’s motor cortex to subconsciously cause the recipient to strike a key on a keyboard. Pascual-Leone contends, however, that his work is notable because the recipient was conscious of the communication.

Both studies represent only a small step toward engineering telepathy, which might take years—or decades—to perfect. Ultimately, the goal is to remove the computer middleman from the transmission equation and allow direct brain-to-brain communication between people. “We’re still a long way from that,” Pascual-Leone admits, “but in the end, I think it’s a pursuit worthy of the effort.”

Outside of medicine, brain-to-brain communication could find applications across many disciplines. Soldiers, for instance, could use the technology on the battlefield, sending commands and warnings to one another. Civilians might benefit, as well; businesspeople could use it to send cues to partners during negotiations, or pitchers and catchers could avoid sign-stealing during baseball games.

Still, telepathic communication that works like a sort of futuristic walkie-talkie will involve major advances in sensing, emitting and receiving technologies—and perhaps even a slight retraining of the human brain. At the same time, Pascual-Leone cautions that scientists must also keep in mind the ethics of telepathy.

“Could there be potential for sending someone a thought that’s not desirable to them?” he says. “Those kinds of things are theoretically in the realm of possibility."

Sours: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/scientists-prove-that-telepathic-communication-is-within-reach-180952868/
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Telepathy

Telepathy is the psionic ability to read and control the minds[1] and thoughts of humans, animals and other sentient beings, and to transfer information from one mind to another without the aid of physical communication (noise or movement). A person with this ability is called a telepath.
Telepathy can be utilized in a number of ways, including, but certainly not limited to, the following:

  • Telepathic Defense: Telepathy can manifest in a number of ways.
    • Psionic Shield: The ability to erect a psychic shield for protection of oneself's and other's minds.[2][3]
    • Telepathic Cloak: The ability to telepathically mask one's presence and the use of their abilities from being detected by other mutants and psychic entities. These defenses can be extended to others around them as well.[4] Cloaking via telepathy is not perfect and powerful telepathic mutants may notice and 'see' through this ability. It can also be pierced by observant outsiders recognizing clues the telepath did not deliberately cloak. For instance, S.H.I.E.L.D. agents once spotted an "invisible" Banshee and White Queen infiltrating their base because Emma didn't cloak the water their feet dragged in from the rain.[5]
  • Telepathic Illusions: The ability to create realistic telepathic illusions and cause people to experience events that are not actually occurring.[6]
    • Telepathic Camouflage: The ability to alter the apparent physical appearance of oneself and others by altering the perceptions of those around them. This can go so far as to make other people believe that the camouflaged people are not there (invisible). The only limit to this ability, if one exists, is imposed by the number of people the telepath is trying to deceive, not necessarily the number of people the telepath is attempting to camouflage.[7]
  • Telepathic Control & Manipulation: The ability to manipulate other people's minds achieving a variety of effects up to and including mind control.
    • Absorb Information: The ability to quickly process and store information by mental transference.[8]
    • Upload Information: The ability to place large amounts of information in another's mind.[9]
    • Astral Projection: The ability to project one's astral form from their body onto astral planes or the physical plane over vast distances.[10]
    • Cyberpathy: The ability to communicate with computers[11] and cyborgs [12].
    • Dream Manipulation: The ability to manipulate the dreams of others.[13]
    • Mind Control: The ability to control the thoughts and actions of others.[14]
    • Mind Possession: The ability to control and use another's body as their own.[15]
    • Mental Alteration: The power to change a person's personality partially or entirely by sheer force of will.[16]
    • Mental Amnesia: The ability to cause loss of particular memories or even total amnesia in another person or group of people.[17]
    • Mental Paralysis: The ability to induce temporary mental or physical paralysis.[18]
    • Mental Sedation: The ability to telepathically "sedate" one's victims so that, if already rendered unconscious, they remain so for as long as a telepath continues to "sedate" them.[19]
    • Mind Link: The ability to develop a mental link with any person which remains as a connection to that individual.[20]
      • Hive Mind: The ability to connect multiple minds to the user, making the user leader, which allow all members to share thoughts, memories and feelings of other members, and maintain permanent mental link with each other.[11]
    • Mind Transferal: The ability to transfer both the mind and powers of the user into other host bodies should their own physical body somehow be destroyed.[20]
    • Mind Trap: Ability to take another person's mind from their body and effectively trapping that mind within his or her own.
    • Memory Manipulation: The ability to read,[21] erase,[22] implant,[23] project,[24] recall,[25] exchange,[26] absorb, and restore[27] the memories of a person or group of people.
    • Telepathic Detection: The ability to psychically scan the area around them to detect any threats nearby.[28]
    • Telepathic Tracking: The ability to enable a telepath to track other sentient beings by their unique psionic emanations (thought patterns contained in the psionic portion of the spectrum), especially if they pose a threat to one's well-being in their immediate vicinity.[29]
    • Neural Jumpstart: The ability to increase the speed of synapses in the brain, allowing them to increase another's powers to incredible levels, with a temporary effect.[30]
    • Dilate Power: The ability to place "psychic inhibitors" in the minds of mutant adversaries to prevent them from using their powers.[31]
    • Pain Inducement: The ability to induce mental pain merely by touching the brow of the victim.[32]
    • Trauma Healing: The ability to heal mental trauma through "psychic surgery", the power to stimulate or deaden the pain and pleasure centers in a person's brain.[33]
    • Intuitive Multilingual: The ability to intuitively translating new languages.[34]
    • Power Manipulation: The ability to directly activate and control superpowers of other beings, without taking control of their body or mind.[35][36]
    • Clairvoyance: The ability to see far off places or events as well as present events and one's surroundings. They possess the ability to use one's sight abilities to their higher potential and the ability to look over somewhere/something only by the use of telepathic abilities.[41]
    • Precognition: The ability to foresee events before they've come to pass.[42]
    • Retrocognition: The ability to see events of the past.[43]
    • Psychometry: The ability for someone to divine information about an object or living subject, simply by coming into close contact with it or something associated with said object or subject (something/someone contacted or used by the subject, etc.). Some with the ability can even act as mediums for residual energies and, as such, can experience talents or memories temporarily from touching an object previously owned by someone else, or tell the past or future of a subject by touching an object owned by or associated with the subject.[27]
    • Psychic Wave Manipulation: The ability to generate and manipulate thought waves. The user can manipulate their thought waves and utilize them either in a telepathic manner or materialize the waves into powerful energy for physical purposes; further compression of such psychic waves could become physical matter. It can create a barrier composed of compressed waves, materialized waves into appendages to manipulate objects and project mind waves into whatever is imagined.[22]
    • Psionic Blasts: The ability to project psionic force bolts which have no physical effects but which can affect a victim's mind so as to cause the victim pain, render them unconsciousness, or kill them.[44]
    • Psionic Siphoning: The ability to siphon the psychic energies from other psionic beings. The stolen psychic energy can be used to either boost one's own powers or channel the energy into someone else to temporarily increase their psionic abilities.[45]
    • Psionic Constructs: Avid usage of the psychic planes energies allows a user to construct mental energy into various shapes and forms be they weapons or otherwise. Because of the nature of said energy the psi forms are purely ethereal having no physical sway, but that doesn't make them any less effective offense wise.[46]
      • Psionic Knives[46]
      • Psionic Shivs
      • Psionic Shotgun
      • Psionic Grenade
      • Psionic Rocket Launcher
      • Psionic Talons[47]

Notable Telepaths

It was stated that the best telepaths were mutants.[48]

For a complete list of telepathic characters, see Category:Telepaths

Sours: https://marvel.fandom.com/wiki/Glossary:Telepathy

Telepathy black

Investigating paranormal phenomena: Functional brain imaging of telepathy

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Sours: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144613/
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