Lunar aquarium lights

Lunar aquarium lights DEFAULT
Lunar Simulator Lunar LED Strings

Lunar Simulator Lunar LED Strings

…Neptune Systems to create a true lunar cycle to your reef aquarium. Lunarlighting can replicate your animals natural environment. By simulating lunar cycles in your aquarium you can help encourage the breeding of fish and spawning of corals. The Lunar Simulator LED lights can be connected directly…

LOOP Marine Bluetooth Controller with Battery Backup

LOOP Marine Bluetooth Controller with Battery Backup

…night mode syncs wave pumps with lunar cycle to slow the flow. DC Pumps Control up to 2 DC pumps, adjust the flow from 0-100%, turn on/off FEED mode. Expand & Customize add multiple systems to one app, additional USB ports allow you to add more lights, pumps and accessories How it works:…

Radion XR15 G5 PRO LED Light Fixture

Radion XR15 G5 PRO LED Light Fixture

…larger tanks LED Details 12x Cool White 16x Royal Blue 8x Blue 2x Photo Red 3x Green 2x UV (405nm) 2x UV (415nm) 2x Violet 3x Warm White 2x LunarLight Specifications: Dimensions:7" L x 7" W x 1.5" H Cable Length:13 Feet Power Input:100-240VAC 1.3A 50/60Hz Variable Usage (MAX):105W What's Included?…

Ramp Timer PRO LED Controller

Ramp Timer PRO LED Controller

…Memory for Power Outage Yes Lighting Channels 4 Compatible LED Lights Compatible LED Lights Ramp Timer Pro Satellite+ LED Fixture No Satellite LED Fixture Yes (Replacement Only) TrueLumen Pro Kits Yes TrueLumen Pro Strips Yes TrueLumen Strips Yes TrueLumen LunarLights Yes Panorama Marine Yes…

LSM Lunar Simulator Module

LSM Lunar Simulator Module

Add the Lunar Simulator Module Apex Unit to create a true lunar cycle to your reef aquarium. Many fish and corals will spawn following the lunar cycle and will help mimic their natural habitat while adding just enough light to the tank to let you see what is going on when the lights go out. Module…

Hydra 32 HD LED Reef Light - Black Body

Hydra 32 HD LED Reef Light - Black Body

…HD, PrimeFW, Hydra 32HD and Hydra 64HD modules. This allows for independent moonlightingdesigned to simulate the natural lunar color and intensity. Control Control on the lights will use the existing myAI app which is free, simple and veryquick to a program offering onsite direct BLE connection…

AP9X LED Lighting Panel

AP9X LED Lighting Panel

…Mimic natural day/night cycles and lunar phases with smooth dimming down to 0.1%from a gentle sunrise to the faintest moonlight. Kessil Ecosystem With two K-Link and two 0-10V control ports, the AP9X can be easily wired to adjacent Kessil fixtures. Lights in a wired group can then be app-controlled…

Hydra 32 HD LED Reef Light - White Body

Hydra 32 HD LED Reef Light - White Body

…HD, PrimeFW, Hydra 32HD and Hydra 64HD modules. This allows for independent moonlightingdesigned to simulate the natural lunar color and intensity. Control Control on the lights will use the existing myAI app which is free, simple and veryquick to a program offering onsite direct BLE connection…

ReefLED 90 LED Light Fixture

ReefLED 90 LED Light Fixture

…your Red Sea ReefLED light for daily schedule programming, scroll through the included programming library for tested schedules, or create your own custom in just a few minutes. Once you get connected a whole slew of additional features can be unlocked, such as a 28-day lunar cycle, cloud cover…

Radion XR15 G5 Blue LED Light Fixture

Radion XR15 G5 Blue LED Light Fixture

…cover larger tanks LED Details 3x Cool White 20x Royal Blue 12x Blue 1x Photo Red 2x Lime 2x UV (405nm) 2x UV (415nm) 3x Violet 5x Cyan 2x LunarLight Specifications: Dimensions:7" L x 7" W x 1.5" H Cable Length:13 Feet Power Input:100-240VAC 1.3A 50/60Hz Variable Usage (MAX):100W What's Included?…

VDM LED & Pumps Control Module

VDM LED & Pumps Control Module

The versatile VDM Expansion Module can be used as a LED Dimming module to simulate Sunrise/Sunset, Lunar Cycle, Clouds and Lighting with Apex Ready+ fixtures. Or use the module as a Variable Speed Pump control with Apex Ready pumps such as Tunze Turbelle Stream 6105, 6155 and 6255. Complete control…

ReefLink Wireless Controller

ReefLink Wireless Controller

…your data and settings are safely stored in the cloud. Use one of many pre-programmed lighting setttings from EcoTech or create your own custom setting Adjust light intensity, individually adjust lights or lunar phases EcoSmart Live App currently available for iOS devices. Android App in development…

Radion XR30 G5 PRO LED Light Fixture

Radion XR30 G5 PRO LED Light Fixture

…cover larger tanks LED Details 24x Cool White 32x Royal Blue 16x Blue 4x Photo Red 6x Green 4x UV (405nm) 4x UV (415nm) 4x Violet 6x Warm White 2x LunarLight Specifications: Dimensions: 11.8" L x 7" W x 1.5" H Cable Length:13 Feet Power Input:100-240VAC 4.0A 50/60Hz Variable Usage (MAX):215W What's…

ReefLED 50 LED Light Fixture

ReefLED 50 LED Light Fixture

…your Red Sea ReefLED light for daily schedule programming, scroll through the included programming library for tested schedules, or create your own custom in just a few minutes. Once you get connected a whole slew of additional features can be unlocked, such as a 28-day lunar cycle, cloud cover…

ReefLED 160s LED Light Fixture

ReefLED 160s LED Light Fixture

…your Red Sea ReefLED light for daily schedule programming, scroll through the included programming library for tested schedules, or create your own custom in just a few minutes. Once you get connected a whole slew of additional features can be unlocked, such as a 28-day lunar cycle, cloud cover…

Hydra 64 HD LED Reef Light - White Body

Hydra 64 HD LED Reef Light - White Body

…HD, PrimeFW, Hydra 32HD and Hydra 64HD modules. This allows for independent moonlightingdesigned to simulate the natural lunar color and intensity. Control Control on the lights will use the existing myAI app which is free, simple and veryquick to a program offering onsite direct BLE connection…

Hydra 64 HD LED Reef Light - Black Body

Hydra 64 HD LED Reef Light - Black Body

…HD, PrimeFW, Hydra 32HD and Hydra 64HD modules. This allows for independent moonlightingdesigned to simulate the natural lunar color and intensity. Control Control on the lights will use the existing myAI app which is free, simple and veryquick to a program offering onsite direct BLE connection…

Radion XR30 G5 Blue LED Light Fixture

Radion XR30 G5 Blue LED Light Fixture

…to cover larger tanks LED Details 6x Cool White 40x Royal Blue 24x Blue 2x Photo Red 4x Lime 4x UV (405nm) 4x UV (415nm) 6x Violet 10x Cyan 2x LunarLight Specifications: Dimensions: 11.8" L x 7" W x 1.5" H Cable Length:13 Feet Power Input:100-240VAC 4.0A 50/60Hz Variable Usage (MAX):205W What's…

Radion XR30 G5 Freshwater LED Light Fixture

Radion XR30 G5 Freshwater LED Light Fixture

…us a state-of-the-art light that blends proven results with greater ease of use. The G2 Freshwater Radion offers a balanced daylight spectrum, specifically geared to the health and growth of freshwater and planted aquariums. Features Freshwater Spectrum & Lunarlight Mobius Compatibility Active…

Radion XR15 G5 Freshwater LED Light Fixture

Radion XR15 G5 Freshwater LED Light Fixture

…us a state-of-the-art light that blends proven results with greater ease of use. The G2 Freshwater Radion offers a balanced daylight spectrum, specifically geared to the health and growth of freshwater and planted aquariums. Features Freshwater Spectrum & Lunarlight Mobius Compatibility Active…

Prism LED Light Fixture 13-20 Inch  24 Watts

Prism LED Light Fixture 13-20 Inch 24 Watts

…Gradually ramp up or down light intensity between 4 set points Lunar moonlight settings for nighttime viewing Create weather effects with a programmable thunderstorm mode Adjustable tank mounting brackets included UL approved power supply 1-year manufacturer warranty A light hanging kit is also…

Prism LED Light Fixture 24-36 Inch  48 Watts

Prism LED Light Fixture 24-36 Inch 48 Watts

…Gradually ramp up or down light intensity between 4 set points Lunar moonlight settings for nighttime viewing Create weather effects with a programmable thunderstorm mode Adjustable tank mounting brackets included UL approved power supply 1-year manufacturer warranty A light hanging kit is also…

Prism LED Light Fixture 36-48 Inch  72 Watts

Prism LED Light Fixture 36-48 Inch 72 Watts

…Gradually ramp up or down light intensity between 4 set points Lunar moonlight settings for nighttime viewing Create weather effects with a programmable thunderstorm mode Adjustable tank mounting brackets included UL approved power supply 1-year manufacturer warranty A light hanging kit is also…

Prism LED Light Fixture 48-60 Inch  96 Watts

Prism LED Light Fixture 48-60 Inch 96 Watts

…Gradually ramp up or down light intensity between 4 set points Lunar moonlight settings for nighttime viewing Create weather effects with a programmable thunderstorm mode Adjustable tank mounting brackets included UL approved power supply 1-year manufacturer warranty A light hanging kit is also…

Sours: //www.bulkreefsupply.com

Image via iStock.com/greenp

By Kenneth Wingerter

Lighting is one of the most important components in a saltwater fish aquarium system. This is particularly so if you keep photosynthetic organisms such as corals, macroalgae and tridacnid clams. The most effective marine aquarium lighting system is the one that is most controlled.

Reef Tank Lighting Schedule

One of the major lighting parameters that is most commonly controlled is photoperiod. Put most simply, in the context of an artificial environment, photoperiod is the tank's lighting schedule. Aquarium photoperiod is controlled by timers (ranging from cheap household plug-in units to highly capable hardware/software located either in the unit or in "the cloud").

Generally, timers are set to operate the lighting at its highest intensity during midday when ambient light (light pollution from the room) is strongest. With your aquarium lights timed to match the ambient photoperiod, strong light pollution won't inhibit the normal nighttime activities of the nocturnal creatures nor the rest of the diurnal (i.e., daytime active) creatures.

But sunlight is not the only source of illumination in nature. Moonlight, too, has a huge influence on a coral reef. True, it is tens of thousands of times weaker than sunlight. It is indeed far too weak to support photosynthesis, for example.

Still, it is just bright enough to guide reticent night dwellers from shadow to shadow. It even keeps sleepy diurnal fish from getting spooked out in the dark. And, perhaps most importantly, it widely serves as a major environmental cue—a signal. It seems a little light is better than none at all.

Moonlight as a Beacon in the Night

Moonlight intensity varies each night as the Earth's position changes in relation to the moon and sun. Because these same changes of orientation generate the tides, animals can rely on subtle differences of moonlight intensity to predict tidal activity.

Not only does this allow animals to synchronize spawning events (thereby increasing the odds of fertilization), but in some cases, also allows them to time the event so that tidal currents swiftly carry the larvae out to the relative safety of the open ocean.

So-called moonlights, smallish aquarium lighting fixtures that emit a low-intensity (usually blue) light, have been popular with reef aquarists for some time. Increasingly, internal timers in high-end dimmable LED units can be set to automatically regulate the transitions between day and night. These (such as the Current USA Orbit LED marine aquarium light) are sometimes also equipped with a preset schedule for lunar cycle schemes.

Benefits of Moonlight for Reef Tanks

It's always good to take any measure to replicate a captive animal's natural environment. In the case of aquarium moonlights, the benefits are many:

  • They offer nocturnal creatures precious illumination to aid in nighttime foraging activities.
  • They provide comfort to diurnal species that might become scared in total darkness.
  • When timed to simulate the natural lunar cycle, they help to regulate aquarium animals' biological clocks.
  • In many cases, they enhance fluorescence, making the colors of many animals (such as corals) really "pop."
  • They give the aquarium keeper an opportunity to better view the nocturnal activity of his or her livestock.

How Much Moonlight Is Too Much?

From the human perspective, underwater moonlight effects are pretty cool. But it is easy to overdo it. What one does not want to do is scare timid animals back into their hideaways. Depending upon factors such as water turbidity, water surface reflection or water depth, even a single, one-watt LED moonlight can be too bright. As a general rule, if you can read by your moonlight at night with no other lights on, it's too bright.

So what is the ideal intensity? That's tough to answer, precisely because intensity ideally fluctuates (with a simulated lunar cycle). But even during a "full moon," you should not be able to see much of the back of your tank. Observe the nighttime behavior of your livestock. Are nocturnal species less, rather than more, active since you added the light? Do diurnal species appear "awake" and distressed?

Less is plenty here. If your moonlight looks more like sunlight and you have no way to dim the diode, raising the fixture further from the water surface might be an easy fix. An alternative solution is to soften the beam with a light diffusor or small sheet of semi-clear glass/plastic.

What Color Moonlight?

Moonlight is, of course, nothing more than reflected sunlight. Though it appears silvery blue to our eyes, it is actually slightly redder than noontime sunshine. Therefore, we should try to replicate this as closely as possible in our tanks.

Manufacturers frequently cater to consumer demand by designing their moonlights to emit mainly bluish light; many hobbyists indeed obtain their first moonlight in order to cause their corals and clams to fluoresce at night.

While these spectra do not seem to stress corals nor clams in any way, they may be unnatural and unfriendly to many nocturnal creatures. They might also fail to elicit natural biological responses (reproductive cycles, for example). So, what is the best light spectrum? Use a typical "daylight" color (just dim it way, way down at night).

Dividing the Day

Whether over a desktop nano-reef or a 6,000-gallon public exhibit, well-simulated moonlight can add an entirely new dimension to the aquarium habitat. For sure, once you've installed a good moonlight, nocturnal fishes (such as cardinal fish) that once seemed boring will now have a certain appeal.

So, that part about timing your tank lights to match the natural photoperiod? While good for the animals, it does pose one problem for those who work into the evening; the keeper hardly ever gets to see the tank with the lights on!

Overall, moonlights add some interest to the nighttime aquascape and truly give the hardworking aquarium keeper a little something to come home to.

Sours: https://www.petmd.com/fish/care/should-i-add-moonlight-my-reef-tank
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Aquarium Lighting: Moonlight – A Concise Review of Its Spectrum, Intensity, Photoperiod, and Relationship to Coral and Fish Spawning

moonlight2.jpg

While a great deal of interest has been shown in the characteristics of artificial daylight for reef aquaria, very little attention has been paid to the other natural illumination – moonlight. Although manufacturers have marketed moonlight simulators for a number of years, I’ve yet to see an in-depth discussion of the subject. This article will attempt to address that issue while discussing some misconceptions about lunar light. In addition, we’ll define spectral characteristics of moonlight, light intensity, and length of natural lunar photoperiod, and ways to simulate moonlight. We’ll also examine the effects (or non-effects) of moonlight on timing of coral spawning (and comment, albeit briefly, its effects on fish spawning behavior).image001.jpg

Lunar Photoperiod in Hawai’i

As we know, the lunar cycle consists of 29.5 days and is the basis for our calendar month. The lunar phase changes in a predictable manner and is due to relative positions of the moon, earth, and sun. Phase is not due to the earth’s shadow falling upon the moon (this is referred to as a lunar eclipse). Figure 1 shows phases and approximate and approximate days of the lunar month.

Figure 2 shows the hours of potential moonlight in Hawaii. Data are based on times of sunrise/sunset and moonrise/moonset.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 2. Hours of moonlight in Hawai’i (latitude N 1938′). Red dots indicate major spawning events of Pocillopora meandrina and Pocillopora eydouxi in waters off the west side of the Big Island of Hawaii.

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Moonlight Spectral Characteristics

Since moonlight is almost entirely reflected sunlight, one might reason that the moon’s spectral signature is exactly that of sunlight – it is not. Data shown in Figures 3 & 4 reveal that moonlight is less blue and redder than sunlight (and this measurement was taken with a ‘silvery’ moon at its zenith. We often see a much more orange moon at moonset).

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Figure 3. Moonlight peaks in the red portion of the spectrum (643nm) but appears ‘silvery’ when at its zenith on a clear night.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 4. A breakout of the moon spectrum shown in Figure 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moonlight Intensity

Moonlight intensity is determined by lunar phase and sky conditions. Figure 5 shows moonlight intensity (in lux) under ideal conditions. Figures 6 and 7 show full moon light intensities (PAR) as measured during two nights (just a few feet above sea level). Note that the intensities are lower than that reported by Jokiel (0.05 µmol·m²·sec, or about 1 lux). The low moonlight intensity reported here is due to a number of factors, including seawater aerosols in the air, thin high level clouds, and vog (a mixture of atmospheric moisture and volcanic smoke from the Pu’u O’o vent and Halema’uma’u caldera of the Kilauea volcano).

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Figure 5. Light intensity of the moon during a month under ideal conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 6. Actual light intensity of a December full moon in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii as recorded by a PAR data logger. Thin, high level caused the moon to have a halo and reduced intensity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 7. Actual light intensity of a full moon two days before a seasonal spawning of Pocillopora meandrina and P. eydouxi stony corals in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factors Influencing Coral Reproduction – Order of Importance

Moonlight is but one factor influencing coral reproduction. If other factors (nutrition, physical parameters, etc.) are correct, these are believed to be important:

Temperature: Temperature seems to exert powerful control over coral reproduction. If the temperature is too high, coral health can suffer, while cool temperature may delay spawning until the next month’s window (Hunter, 1988; Riddle personal observations). Temperature has been stated to be the influence of paramount importance in the reproductive cycles of marine invertebrates (Olive, 1995). In Hawaii, the temperature threshold is about 75F (24C; Dr. Paul Jokiel, personal communication).

Moonlight: Lunar cycles set the date of spawning in many coral species and the lunar calendar can be used to accurately predict it.

Daylight Photoperiod: Solar photoperiods influence coral reproductive efforts and set the hour and minute of spawning (Vize et al., 2008). The time of sunset is the fine-tuning factor for many marine invertebrates including at least some sponge and coral species.

 

Corals Don’t Have Eyes – How Do They Sense Light? And What Do They See?

Gorbunov et al. (2002) found blue light at about 480nm (110nm width, half maximum) at very low light intensity caused a reaction among coral tentacles,although a description of photoreceptors involved was not part of the experiment.

In 2003, Levy et al. exposed corals (azooxanthellate Cladopsammia gracilis) the bubble coral Plerogyra sinuosa, the flower pot coralGoniopora lobata, Favia favus, and Stylophora pistillata) to various light wavelengths (400-700nm at 20nm intervals) and intensities (10µmol·m²·sec and 30 µmol·m²·sec; ~500 lux and 1,500 lux, respectively) and recorded tentacle contractions. Cladopsammia did not respond to any light treatment, while Plerogyra sinuosa and Favia favus contracted their tentacles when exposed to wavelengths between 400-520nm (violet-blue-green). Interestingly, Favia favus also responded to red light (660-700nm) at 30 µmol·m²·sec or ~1,500 lux (see light sensitivities of rhodopsin-like compounds and cryptochromes below).

Five years later, a rhodopsin*-like compound was found in the stony coralAcropora millepora (Anctil et al., 2007), explaining how corals sense light. Almost simultaneously, Levy et al. (2007) described cryptochrome** proteins sensitive to blue light in Acropora millepora. Other researchers have noted corals’ responses to light suggesting rhodopsin-like compounds are found in at least some corals.

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This ability to sense light explains how corals can grow towards light, and if overturned, can redirect their growth (this is call phototropism). It also explains how corals set their biological clocks through sensing daylight and moonlight.

*Rhodopsin is a photosensitive pigment found in many animals’ eyes (including humans) within receptors called cones. Cones and their rhodopsin content enable us to see in very low light conditions. Rhodopsin collects light in wavelengths of about 400nm (violet) to red (at ~600nmn) but most strongly in the blue-green portion of the spectrum (Hunt, 1987).

**Cryptochromes (Greek for ‘hidden color’) are proteins sensitive to blue light and are found in photoreceptors of plants and animals.

 

Entrained Biological Rhythms versus Response to Environmental Factors

The act of coral spawning involves production of a number of compounds, and this may be the result of entrained rhythms or exposure to external stimuli. For our purposes, entrained rhythms are those that occur without external stimuli such as sunlight or moonlight. These are likely controlled genetically. Environmental factors (such as like or moonlight) can influence the production of compounds. Vize et al. (2008) found photoreceptors signal production of proteins important in annual spawning of the stony coralMontastrea cavernosa.

 

Fish Reproduction and Lunar Phase

Many fishes are known to spawn synchronously around a certain lunar phase and this timing may be species-specific. For instance, Takemura et al., 2004 discuss lunar phase and spawning of the golden rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus). These fish did not spawn when subjected to constant illumination, and those held in conditions of total darkness at night displayed altered spawning patterns. Pressley (1980) described the relationship of lunar phase and reproduction of the yellowtail damselfish, Microspathodon chrysurus.

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Figure 8. Transmission of light (by wavelength at 25nm intervals) through the clearest of seawater (Type I Oceanic; after Jerlov, 1976). Note that blue-green light at ~500nm penetrates this water the best.

It is an interesting notion that circadian rhythms play an important part in fish reproduction and that accurate simulation of lunar phase may be an important factor.

 

Light Spectra Transmission in Clear Seawater

As mentioned earlier, several researchers have found that some corals respond to blue light. It is perhaps not by coincidence that maximum penetration of light occurs at about 480-500nm. See Figure 8.

Moonlight and Coral Spawning

Moonlight is commonly believed to be one of the deciding environmental factors for timing of coral spawning. Jokiel (1985) examined numerous Pocillopora damicornis specimens and concluded planula release occurred around the time of the full moon. However, Hunter (1988) experimented with two Hawaiian Montipora species (M. verrucosa = capitata and M. dilatata) and found the following:

  • Both sets of corals spawned simultaneously with control corals when exposed to constant simulated moonlight (at a flux of 0.01 µmol·m²·sec, or about 0.5 lux)
  • When exposed to no simulated moonlight (constant new moon), 43% of the M. verrucosa spawned in sync with the controls, and in the next month, 1 week prior to the new moon. Montipora dilatata specimens also spawned in synch with controls in the first month, and then 8 days out of normal phase the next month.
  • When maintained under simulated moonlight shifted 14 days out of phase, both coral species spawned simultaneously with controls, and then 2 to 12 days out of sync in the second month.
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    Figure 9. This blue LED acts as an artificial moon.

 

Artificial Moonlight

It is usually impractical to expose an aquarium to moonlight hence artificial means are preferred. In my 1995 book, The Captive Reef, I outlined a means of simulating moonlight with a blue incandescent lamp and a manual dimmer. Technology has come a long way since then and light-emitting diodes are now the preferred method. See Figure 9.

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Figure 10 shows the typical spectral quality of a LED peaking in the blue portion of the spectrum at ~450nm.

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Figure 10. This blue LED generates almost monochromatic light peaking at about 450nm.

Controllers

There are a number of controllers on the market claiming to simulate timing and variable intensity of natural moonlight. This article is not intended to review all those available. Instead, I describe the one I own – the tunze Multicontroller 7095. This device’s main function is that of controlling tunze pumps but includes a LED for moonlight simulation. The only thing a hobbyist has to do is turn the moonlight LED on when the real moon is full and the controller automatically does the rest. A photo-sensor will turn the LED moon on when the aquarium lights go out and lunar phase intensity is controlled over a 29 day cycle. See Figure 11 for a close up view of the photo-sensor/LED and Figure 12 shows the spectral characteristics of the LED.

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Figure 11. The photosensor of the Tunze 7095 Multicontroller is housed in clear acrylic. When the lights go out, this sensor automatically turns the LED on (in the black tube to the right) and vice versa. This assembly is less than 2 inches (5cm) long.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 12. Spectral quality of the Tunze LED moon. It is full-spectrum, with peak intensity at about 460nm.

 

 

 

 

 

In Closing

Many corals contain photoreceptors (note their ability to almost always grow towards light). Some demonstrate responses to blue light, while at least one species can sense both blue and red light. Some show no response to light.

Moonlight is thought to play an important role in timing reproductive cycles of many coral and fish species. In corals, lunar cycles set the date of spawning, while the time of onset of darkness fine tunes the cycle and decide the hour and minute (then a release of hormones into the water induces mass spawning). An altered lunar phase may at least temporary disrupt spawning synchrony among at least some coral species. Lunar periodicity seems to play a role in timing of reproduction among at least some fish species. Interestingly, short term exposure of some fishes to constant artificial moonlight may have prevented spawning, while the same did not affect the patterns in some corals. It seems apparent that different taxa are affected differently by altered moon phases, if only temporarily.

Although moonlight appears white or silvery, use of LEDs producing blue light to simulate moonlight is, at least for some coral species, correct based to peer-reviewed evidence. Use of LEDs producing white light is likely to be OK as well, since these diodes are essentially blue LEDs doped with phosphors that fluoresce longer wavelengths. However, the light intensity of the light produced by even a single blue LED has the potential to be brighter than natural moonlight measured here in Hawaii. Light penetration in aquaria, with their usually shallow (and hopefully clear!) waters, should not be an issue, so using LEDs with a maximum wavelength of 450 or 460nm may actually be an advantage due to their lower output at 480nm.

Since most PAR meters’ minimum respond is ‘1’, these units are useless in determining proper placement of a light source in order to mimic natural moonlight intensity. On the other hand, a lux meter can measure moonlight at its maximum intensity although the reading will be ~1. Hence, placement of the LED for providing proper intensity will likely have to be estimated visually. At present, the effects of over-illumination of a reef aquarium at night are unknown but it is possible that it might affect fish or invertebrate spawning behavior.

A number of controllers with abilities to simulate lunar phase are on the market. In absence of one, a handy hobbyist can make a manually-controller lunar simulator with a low wattage incandescent lamp and a rheostat.

 

Testing Equipment

Spectral characteristics of the moon and LED were measured with an Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer and SpectraSuite software. Data were downloaded to an Excel worksheet for post-processing. Moon intensities were recorded by a Li-Cor 1400 quantum meter/datalogger and cosine-corrected quantum sensor.

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Acknowledgement

Thanks to my brother David for supplying the photograph of the moon.

Questions? Comments? Please post below or contact me at [email protected]

 

References

  1. Anctil, M., D. Hayward, D. Miller, and E. Ball, 2007. Sequence and expression of four coral G protein-coupled receptors distinct from all classifiable members of the rhodopsin family. Gene, 392(12): 14-21.
  2. Brady, A., K. Snyder and P. Vize, 2011. Circadian cycles of gene expression in the coral, Acropora millepora. PLoSOne Online.
  3. Gorbunov, M., Z. Kolber, M. Lesser, and P. Falkowski, 2002. Photoreceptors in the cnidarian hosts allow symbiotic corals to sense blue moonlight. Limnol. Oceanogr., 47(1), 2002, 309-315.
  4. Hunt, R., 1987. Measuring Colour. Fountain Press, Kingston-upon-Thames, England. 344 pp.
  5. Hunter, C., 1988. Environmental cues controlling spawning in two Hawaiian corals Montipora verrucosa and M. dilatata. Proc. 6th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Australia. 2:727-732.
  6. Jerlov, N., 1976. Marine Optics. Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., New York. 231 pp.
  7. Jokiel, P., 1985. Lunar periodicity of planula release in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis in relation to various environmental factors. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti. 4: 307-312.
  8. Levy, O., L. Appelbaum, W. Leggat, Y. Gothlif, D. Hayward, D. Miller, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, 2007. Light-responsive cryptochromes from a simple multicellular animal, the coral Acropora millepora. Science, 318 (5849):467-470.
  9. Levy, O., Z. Dubinsky, and Y. Achituv, 2003. Photobehavior of stony corals: Responses to light spectra and intensity. J. Exp. Biol., 206: 4041-4049.
  10. Olive, P., 1995. Annual breeding cycles in marine invertebrates and environmental temperature: Probing the proximate and ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. J. Therm. Biol., 20(1, 2): 79-90.
  11. Pressley, P., 1980. Lunar periodicity of the yellowtail damselfish, Microspathodon chrysurus.Environ. Biol. Fishes, 5:155-159.
  12. akemura, A., E. Susilo, M. Rahman and M. Morita, 2004. Perception and possible utilization of moonlight intensity for reproductive activities in a lunar-synchronized spawner, the golden rabbitfish. J. Exp. Zoology, Part A: Comp. Exp. Biol., 301A, 10: 844-851.
  13. Vize, P., J. Hilton, A. Brady and S. Davies, 2008. Light sensing and the coordination of coral broadcast spawning behavior. Proc. 11th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

Category:
  Advanced Aquarist

Sours: https://reefs.com/magazine/aquarium-lighting-moonlight-a-concise-review-of-its-spectrum-intensity-photoperiod-and-relationship-to-coral-and-fish-spawning/
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If you have ever brought a group of corydoras catfish home from the store to find that they all died in transport, this article will be incredibly enlightening.

Aquarium Hobbyists Help Save 30 Species from Extinction

The pet trade gets a bad rap for exploiting wild animals but sometimes the opposite is true.

Species Spotlight: New Corydoras Catfish Discovered

A species of Corydoras catfish that was discovered in the 1990s has finally been officially described and named.

How Has Technology Changed the Aquarium Hobby?

Advances in modern technology have changed the world we live in, but how has it affected the aquarium hobby?

Trending: Jellyfish in the Home Aquarium

You have probably seen your fair share of jellyfish in zoo aquariums, but did you know that it is possible to keep these creatures as pets?

Trending: Glow in the Dark Fish

Glow in the dark fish may not be a new trend but new additions to the market have recently been made -- glow in the dark convict cichlids and angelfish.

Media Reactors - An Innovative Approach to Aquarium Filtration

When it comes to aquarium filtration there are many options to choose from.

Aquarium Fish News: Bill Introduced to Limit Aquarium Fish Collecting

The saltwater aquarium industry takes millions of fish from oceans around the world each year.

Betta Fish Trending Topics for January 2017

The betta fish is and will forever be one of the most popular types of aquarium fish.

New Discovery Key to Keeping Pinnatus Batfish

The Pinnatus Batfish is one of the most striking species of saltwater aquarium fish, but notoriously difficult to keep in the home aquarium.

Trending: Adding LED Moonlights to the Aquarium

With advances in aquarium lighting technology, you now have the option to add specialized nighttime lighting to your aquarium.

How Aquarium Trends Affect the World

Trends in the aquarium trade have an effect on more than just aquarium hobbyists -- they can affect the whole world.

The Bright and Colorful Discus Fish: Spring 2017 Aquarium Trends

Discus fish are some of the most brightly colored fish in the animal kingdom.

Cichlid Compatibility: February Week 2 Aquarium Trends

In the second week of February 2017, one of the highest trending topics in aquarium-related social media is in regard to cichlid compatibility.

Aquarium News: Five New Species of Dwarfgobies Discovered

Gobies are some of the smallest fish in the world and dwarfgobies are the smallest of those.

Wireless Aquarium Lighting Solutions

One of the latest developments in aquarium lighting is wireless control of LED systems.

Changes in Marine Aquarium Design

The only thing that doesn't change in the world is the fact that things change.

Shrimp in the Home Aquarium: Spring 2017 Aquarium Trends

If you're looking for a unique way to stock your new tank, give freshwater shrimp a try.

News: Trade Continues Despite Threatened Conservation Status

A recent paper published by the Conservation Research Group and the IUCN shows that more than 30 threatened species endemic to India are still being regularly exported, despite their conservation status.

Aquascaping the Aquarium: March 2017 Aquarium Trends

The art of decorating a home aquarium is called "aquascaping" and it is a trending topic in aquarium social media this month.

Study Reveals that Fish May Have Individual Personalities

While some species like Oscars are known for exhibiting dog-like behaviors, a recent study shows that many fish are capable of developing individual personalities.

Cramped, Boring Environments Lead to Anger in Fish

A recent study conducted by a biology professor at Case Western Reserve University reveals that environment size and complexity has a direct impact on aggressive behavior in aquarium fish.

Trending: Compact Aquarium Equipment

One of the latest trends in aquarium equipment is compact upgrades.

Newly Discovered Fish Species of 2013

New species of plants and animals are being discovered every year.

Trending: Sophisticated Water Quality Monitoring Devices

Testing your aquarium water is a chore that no aquarium hobbyist likes.

Trending: Colorful Species for the Marine Tank

Color has always been a main component of the marine tank but these species are keeping the bar high.

Trending: Nano Tanks More Popular Than Ever

A nano tank is more than just a small fish tank -- it is a compact, self-contained ecosystem.

News: Unique Species to Hit the Market

The new year brings a new wave of unique species to add to your home aquarium.

North American Aquariums Go Green

From recycling and organic farming, sustainability and conservation are two hot trending topics.

Your Aquarium Might Not Be as Peaceful as You Think

For many aquarium hobbyists, the aquarium is a source of relaxation and serenity.

The Top New Coral Species of 2013

The saltwater aquarium hobby is ever-changing -- trends and even species come and go.

News: Lionfish Invasion in the Atlantic

Lionfish are a very popular species in the marine aquarium hobby but they have begun to threaten native populations in the Atlantic as they spread from their native habitat in the Indo-Pacific.

Innovations in Marine Disease Treatments

Treating marine aquarium diseases is easier than ever with innovations like medicated frozen fish food.

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