Power path controller

Power path controller DEFAULT
LTC322612.55.50.315Single, External, P-Channel0.0552-Cell Supercapacitor Charger with Backup PowerPath Controller3x3 QFN-16LTC441014.355.50.5Single, External, P-Channel0.5Allows faster charging from USB port and complies with USB spec.SOT-23LTC311812.2182Dual, Internal, N-Channel0.0518V, 2A Buck-Boost DC/DC Converter with Low-Loss Dual Input PowerPath4x5 QFN-24,TSSOP-28LTC441112.65.52.6Single, Internal, P-Channel0.04Integrated switch: Replaces power supply ORSOT-23LTC441322.55.52.6Dual, Internal, P-Channel0.025Dual 2.6A, 2.5V to 5.5V, Ideal Diodes in 3mm × 3mm DFN3x3 DFN-10LTC4413-, Internal, P-Channel0.04Dual 2.6A, 2.5V to 5.5V Fast Ideal Diodes in a 3mm x 3mm DFN3x3 DFN-10LTC4413-, Internal, P-Channel0.04Dual 2.6A, 2.5V to 5.5V Fast Ideal Diodes in a 3mm x 3mm DFN, Overvoltage Protection Sensor with Drive Output for an External P-Channel MOSFET3x3 DFN-10LTC441521.75.54Dual, Internal, P-Channel0.044Dual 4A Ideal Diodes with Adjustable Current Limit, Imon Outputs, Overcurrent Warning, Thermal Warning5x3 DFN-16,MS-16ELTC147324.75305Dual, External, N-Channel0.1Dual, High Gate DriveSSOP-16LTC1473L24.75305Dual, External, N-Channel0.1Power path management for multiple DC sources. 3.3V to 10V input. all N-Channel MOSFETs for low lossSSOP-16LTC147936285Triple, External, N-Channel0.175Triple PowerPath Controller for Dual Battery Systems and AC/DCSSOP-36LTC295222.7285Dual, External, P-Channel0.065Push Button PowerPath Controller with Supervisor4x4 QFN-20,TSSOP-20LTC43581926.55Single, Internal, N-Channel0.785A Ideal Diode4x3 DFN-14,TSSOP-16LTC441212.5285Single, External, P-Channel0.015Replaces power supply ORSOT-23LTC4412HV12.5365Single, External, P-Channel0.018Rugged version of the LTC4412: Vin up to 36VSOT-23LTC441732.5365Triple, External, P-Channel0.028Prioritized PowerPath Controller with -42V Reverse Input Protection4x4 QFN-24,SSOP-24LTC43542-80-4.510Dual, External, N-Channel1.2Dual Negative Voltage Ideal Diode-OR Controller and Monitor3x2 DFN-8,SO-8LT4320197220Single Bridge with External N-Channel1.3Ideal Diode Bridge Controller - DC to 60Hz3x3 DFN-8,MS-12E,N-8LT4320-1197220Single Bridge with External N-Channel1.3Ideal Diode Bridge Controller - DC to 600Hz3x3 DFN-8,MS-12E,N-8LT43212208020Dual Bridges with External N-Channel0.5PoE Ideal Diode Bridge Controller4x4 QFN-16LTC4225-122.91820Dual, External, N-Channel2.9Dual Ideal Diode and Hot Swap Controller, Latch Off After Fault4x5 QFN-24,SSOP-24LTC4225-222.91820Dual, External, N-Channel2.9Dual Ideal Diode and Hot Swap Controller, Retry After Fault4x5 QFN-24,SSOP-24LTC4227-122.91820Dual, External, N-Channel3.3Dual Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller, Latch Off, 100ms Start Up4x5 QFN-20,SSOP-16LTC4227-222.91820Dual, External, N-Channel3.3Dual Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller, Auto Retry, 100ms Start Up4x5 QFN-20,SSOP-16LTC4227-322.91820Dual, External, N-Channel3.3Dual Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller, Latch Off, 1.6ms Start Up4x5 QFN-20LTC4227-422.91820Dual, External, N-Channel3.3Dual Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller, Auto Retry, 1.6ms Start Up4x5 QFN-20LTC4228-122.91820Dual, External, N-Channel2.95Dual Ideal Diode and Hot Swap Controller, Latch Off After Fault4x5 QFN-28,SSOP-28LTC4228-222.91820Dual, External, N-Channel2.95Dual Ideal Diode and Hot Swap Controller, Retry After Fault4x5 QFN-28,SSOP-28LTC422912.91820Single, External, N-Channel2.53Ideal Diode and Hot Swap Controller4x5 QFN-24,SSOP-24LTC4235291420Dual, External, N-Channel3.64Dual 12V Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller with Current Monitor4x5 QFN-20LTC423622.91820Dual, External, N-Channel3.58Dual Ideal Diode-OR and Single Hot Swap Controller with Current Monitor4x5 QFN-28LTC4352101820Single, External, N-Channel1.47Low Voltage Ideal Diode Controller with Monitoring3x3 DFN-12,MS-12LTC4353201820Dual, External, N-Channel1.6Dual Low Voltage Ideal Diode Controller4x3 DFN-16,MS-16LTC4355298020Dual, External, N-Channel2.6Positive High Voltage Dual Ideal Diode-OR with Input Supply and Fuse Monitors4x3 DFN-14,MS-16,SO-16LTC4357198020Single, External, N-Channel0.93Positive High Voltage Ideal Diode Controller2x3 DFN-6,MS-8LTC4359148020Single, External, N-Channel0.15Ideal Diode Controller with -40V Reverse Input Protection2x3 DFN-6,MS-8LTC4364-1148020Single, External, N-Channel0.483Ride-through protection with ideal diode, Adjustable output-clamp and circuit-breaker with timer, Shutdown mode, Latchoff4x3 DFN-14,MS-16,SO-16LTC4364-2148020Single, External, N-Channel0.483Ride-through protection with ideal diode, Adjustable output-clamp and circuit-breaker with timer, Shutdown mode, Auto-retry4x3 DFN-14,MS-16,SO-16LTC4370201820Dual, External, N-Channel2.25Two-Supply Diode-OR Current Balancing Controller4x3 DFN-16,MS-16LTC43712-500-4.520Dual, External, N-Channel0.3Dual Negative Voltage Ideal Diode-OR Controller and Monitor3x3 DFN-10,MS-10LTC4414133620Single, External, P-Channel0.03636V, Low Loss PowerPath Controller for Large PFETsMS-8LTC441623.63620Dual, External, P-Channel0.03536V, Low Loss Dual PowerPath Controllers for Large PFETsMS-10
Sours: http://bdtic.com/en/linear/PowerPath_Controllers_Ideal_Diodes

NCP1855: Battery Charger, Switching, 2.5 A, with External Power Path Control, USB-OTG Boost Regulator and High-Voltage Input Capability

  • 2.5 A Buck Converter with Integrated Pass Devices
  • Input Current Limiting to Comply to USB Standard
  • Automatic Charge Current for AC Adaptor Charging
  • High Accuracy Voltage and Current Regulation
  • Input Overvoltage Protection up to +28 V
  • 1000 mA Boosted Supply for USB OTG Peripherals
  • Reverse Leakage Protection Prevents Battery Discharge
  • Protected USB Transceiver Supply Switch
  • Dynamic Power Path with Optional Battery FET
  • Silicon Temperature Supervision for Optimized Charge Cycle
  • Flag Output for Charge Status and Interrupts
  • I2C Control Bus up to 3.4 MHz
Sours: https://www.onsemi.com/products/power-management/battery-management/battery-charge-controllers/ncp1855
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Primer on PowerPath Controllers, Ideal Diodes & Prioritizers

Electronic systems powered by multiple DC sources are commonplace - they include handheld devices (USB port and battery), portable instruments (wall adapter and battery), and high-availability servers (main and redundant/auxiliary supply rails). Selecting the correct input supply to power the system is not a trivial task, as an improper implementation oscillates between supplies, causes power brownouts, or damages the input supplies by allowing reverse current. Linear Technology’s PowerPath controllers simplify this task of dynamic supply selection.

A multi-input power system has switches multiplexing the input supplies to a common output load. A PowerPath controller is basically what the name hints—it selects and controls the path on which power flows to the system. The controller selects the input source based on highest voltage or highest priority; the former type is called an ideal diode, while the latter is called a prioritizer. PowerPath controllers employ integrated or external, single or back-to-back, P- or N-channel MOSFET switches to multiplex up to three input supplies to the common output load. More than three supplies are multiplexed by employing multiple controllers.

PowerPath Controller Figure

Ideal diodes are MOSFETs with a control circuit around them (Figure 2), turning on with a low voltage drop (below 50mV) in the forward bias condition (input voltage greater than output voltage) and turning off when reverse biased (input voltage less than output voltage). Ideal diodes (aka active diodes) reduce voltage and power losses by a factor of ten or more when compared to power Schottky diodes. Heat sinking requirements are minimized, yielding a compact solution. Low voltage supply (5V, 3.3V, or lower) applications gain increased voltage headroom. Ideal diodes also include additional monitoring and protection features not available with standard diodes. Like conventional diodes, ideal diodes combine (diode-OR) supplies together to provide redundancy in the event of input failure or short-circuit. Additionally, they can be used for output supply holdup during input brownouts, reverse battery protection (LTC4359), or balancing supply currents (LTC4370).

N/P Channel PowerPath Controllers

The voltage drop across an ideal diode can be calculated as ILOAD • RDS(ON). For a 5mΩ RDS(ON) MOSFET with 10A load current, the ideal diode voltage drop calculates to 50mV. Table 1 compares this voltage loss to the 500mV typical drop of a power Schottky diode, at different input supply voltages. As shown, a Schottky diode’s voltage drop becomes intolerable at low supply voltages, eating away a significant portion of the operating voltage. An ideal diode is the only feasible solution at low input voltages.


Voltage Loss as a Percentage of Input Voltage
500mV Schottky Diode50mV Ideal Diode

Ideal diode power dissipation is calculated as ILOAD2 • RDS(ON), while for the 0.5V Schottky diode it is calculated as 0.5V • ILOAD. Figure 3 compares the power dissipation of these two diodes: the ideal diode power savings increases with load current, eliminating or shrinking heat sinks to save board area.

–48V/50A Diode-OR Power Dissipation vs. Load Current

There are two methods of constructing an ideal diode—one employs comparators, while the other uses a linear servo amplifier. The comparator based technique either allows DC reverse current (possibly damaging power supply) or it oscillates between on and off at light load currents or during supply switchover, injecting noise in to the system. Conversely, linear control of the forward voltage drop across the MOSFET ensures smooth supply switchover without oscillation, even under light loads. Hence, linear servo is the technique used by all Linear Technology ideal diodes. The voltage drop across the N-channel MOSFET source-to-drain is regulated to a small reference voltage by an amplifier. In Figure 4a, a 15mV difference between the input supply voltage (NFET source) and the load voltage (NFET drain) is maintained by controlling the gate voltage (hence the MOSFET resistance) even as the load current changes. As the load increases, the gate voltage will rail out at its maximum value and the MOSFET behaves as a resistor, its forward voltage drop increasing linearly with current. Figure 4b illustrates the resulting IV characteristic of this 15mV ideal diode.

This is a common question when looking at an ideal diode circuit. Let’s consider the N-channel ideal diode in Figure 2. N-channel power MOSFETs have an inherent body diode pointing from source to drain (i.e., anode connected to source and cathode to drain). If the drain pin was connected to the input and source to the output, the body diode allows reverse current flow from load to supply, which is not desired. Therefore, an N-channel MOSFET’s source pin is connected to the input in ideal diode circuits. With this orientation, load current flows through the body diode until the MOSFET gate turns on and current gets diverted through the MOSFET channel.

A diode-OR selects the highest voltage input supply to power the output (there is some droop current sharing when the input voltages are close). This is suitable for redundant supplies with similar nominal voltages. In some applications, especially in portable electronics powered by wall adapter and battery, voltage is not the main criteria for powering the system. The wall adapter powers the system as long as it is available, i.e., it has higher priority than the battery. A prioritizer enables the user to select which power source appears at the load, independent of voltage levels. This can be implemented with an ideal diode-OR circuit that monitors the high priority source (12V wall adapter in Figure 5) with a resistive divider (R2A, R2C) and disables the lower priority supply (E2# input) as long as the higher priority supply is available (above 9V threshold). An extra MOSFET (Q3) is needed to block the parallel forward current path through the ideal diode MOSFET (Q2) body diode on the backup supply (4-cell Li-Ion battery).

12V Automatic PowerPath Switchover  (Vprimary > Vbackup)

The above implementation works for a 2-input system but gets complicated with 3-inputs. The LTC4417 prioritizer is designed specifically for prioritizing three supplies in the 2.5V to 36V range (Figure 6); it selects the highest priority valid supply among three inputs to power the load. Priority is defined by pin assignment (V1 is highest priority and V3 is lowest priority), while a supply is considered valid after it has been inside a voltage window set by 1.5% accurate undervoltage and overvoltage thresholds for 256ms. The LTC4417 simplifies designs, deriving power from multiple, disparate voltage sources common in handheld and high availability electronics. In such systems, a prioritizer is a better solution than a simple diode-OR, especially when the preferred power source is not the highest voltage. A limited power source such as a battery (V2, 14.8V) can be given lower priority than a wall adapter (V1, 12V), even though the battery voltage is higher, extending battery run time.

Priority Switching from 12V Main Supply to 14.8V Battery Backup
Priority Switching from 12V V1 to 14.8V V2

Both N-channel and P-channel PowerPath controllers are available. In addition, the MOSFET can be integrated, or the controller may require an external MOSFET. Each option provides flexibility in how the circuit operates. N-channel MOSFETs have higher mobility than P-channel MOSFETs and carry more current; for high current applications (above 5A), N-channel MOSFETs may be preferred. However, N-channel controllers require a gate voltage higher than the supply voltage to enhance (turn on) the MOSFET. This is why a charge pump or boost regulator is included inside positive supply N-channel controllers. P-channel controllers pull the MOSFET gate low for turn on, eliminating the need for a charge pump. Integrated MOSFETs provide a compact solution but are limited in current levels; external MOSFET controllers allow the user to optimize the MOSFET for a specific current level, lowest RDS(ON) (including connecting multiple MOSFETs in parallel for high current applications), thermal performance, etc. A single MOSFET allows forward current to flow through its body diode even when the MOSFET channel is turned off by the gate. To provide complete blocking for both forward and reverse currents during gate turn-off, some controllers are capable of driving back-to-back connected MOSFETs (Q2, Q3 in Figure 5).

Linear Technology offers a wide array of PowerPath controllers that minimize power dissipation, reduce voltage drop and provide more functionality than a typical diode. These devices are ideal for a wide range of applications, from high-end datacom and server systems to portable battery-powered products.

Sours: https://www.analog.com/en/technical-articles/primer-on-powerpath-controllers-ideal-diodes-prioritizers.html
Li-ion Battery Charging Circuit Design - KiCad 5 [QCB 2]
PowerPath Controllers, Ideal Diodes PowerPath™ controllers simplify power source selection in portable and high availability electronics employing multiple, disparate inputs such as wall adapters and batteries. Selection is either by highest voltage, as in a diode-OR, or by highest priority. Linear Technology’s PowerPath controllers utilize P-channel MOSFETs as switches and ideal diodes. By dropping significantly less forward voltage than a regular diode, an ideal diode MOSFET conserves power and voltage headroom, critical for low voltage, battery-equipped systems. The lower drop leads to cooler operation, eliminating bulky heat sinks. LTC®4417 Triple Supply Prioritized PowerPath Controller HIGH PRIORITY Connects Highest Priority Valid Supply to Output 256ms Long, 1.5% Precise Overvoltage and Undervoltage Validation <1μA Draw from Supplies Below VOUT –42V Reversed Input Protection Blocks Reverse and Cross Conduction While Minimizing Output Droop n MEDIUM PRIORITY VOUT 2.5V TO 36V LOW PRIORITY n n n Vn n V1 VALID WINDOW V2 V3 UVn OVn SHUTDOWN VALIDn LTC4417 CAS SUPPLY IS VALID CASCADING OUTPUT ENABLE HYSTERESIS GND LTC4415 Dual Monolithic Ideal Diodes with Adjustable 4A Limit IN1 PRIMARY 1.7V to 5.5V IDEAL OUT1 15mV Forward Turn-On Voltage Smooth Oscillation-Free Diode-OR Switchover Load Current Monitor Precision Enable Thresholds for Prioritized Switchover Current/Thermal Limit Warnings, Status Outputs n TO LOAD n n n + GND n CURRENT LIMIT 4 RON = 50mΩ LOAD CURRENT (A) SECONDARY POWER SOURCE EN1 LTC4415 CLIM1 STAT1 CLIM2 WARN1 WARN2 STAT2 EN2 IDEAL OUT2 IN2 LTC4415 3 SCHOTTKY DIODE MBRS410E 2 VOLTAGE SAVED 1 0 L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks and PowerPath is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 0 100 300 400 200 FORWARD VOLTAGE DROP (mV) 500 LTC4414 3V to 36V Ideal Diode Controller for Large PFETs WALL ADAPTER INPUT Low Loss Replacement for Power Schottky Diode MOSFET Gate Protection Clamp –14V Reversed Input Protection Off Control Input Status Output Drives Auxiliary PFET n TO LOAD BATTERY CELL(S) n n n LTC4414 VIN GND GATE CTL STAT n VCC SENSE STATUS OUTPUT LOW WHEN WALL ADAPTER IS PRESENT LTC2952 Pushbutton and Dual Ideal Diode-OR Controller with System Supervisor 3V TO 25V Dual Input Ideal Diode-OR Control Pushbutton On/Off Control of Downstream DC/DC Converter Adjustable On/Off Debounce Timers Simple Interface for Graceful Microprocessor Shutdown ±8kV HBM ESD on Pushbutton Input n DC/DC n SHDN n 12V BATTERY G1 G2 n EN VMON PB n LTC2952 INT KILL µP WD ONTIMER OFFTIMER Linear Technology PowerPath Controllers Part Number VIN Range (V) Max Current IQ (μA) Function Packages (mm) LTC4411 2.6 to 5.5 2.6A 40 17mV Turn-On, 140mΩ Ideal Diode with 2.6A Limit TSOT23-5 LTC4412HV 2.5 to 36 LTC4413-1/ LTC4413-2 FET 18 Ideal Diode Controller with Off Control Input TSOT23-6 2.5 to 5.5 2.6A 40 18mV Turn-On, 140mΩ Dual Ideal Diodes with 2.6A Limit LTC4414 3 to 36 FET 36 Ideal Diode Controller for Large PFETs LTC4415 1.7 to 5.5 4A 44 15mV Turn-On, 50mΩ Dual Ideal Diodes with Adjustable 4A Limit LTC4416 3.6 to 36 FET 70 Dual Ideal Diode Controller with Enable Inputs MSOP-10 LTC4417 2.5 to 36 FET 28 Triple Supply Prioritized PowerPath Controller 4 × 4 QFN-24, SSOP-24 LTC2952 2.7 to 28 FET 65 Pushbutton and Dual Ideal Diode-OR Controller, System Supervisor 4 × 4 QFN-20, TSSOP-20 3 × 3 DFN-10 MSOP-8 3 × 5 DFN-16, MSOP-16E www.linear.com/powerpath_controllers n 1-800-4-LINEAR 1012
Sours: https://dtsheet.com/doc/1622545/powerpath-controllers--ideal-diodes

Controller power path

There are many situations when our circuit design has two power sources such as an adapter and a battery or it can even be two other power supplies from two different outlets. The requirement of the application can be something like it should always need to remain ON during power failures by using and additional power source that is available. For example, a circuit that is powered using an adapter needs to switch to a battery or an auxiliary power supply without interrupting the operation of the circuit in the event of a power failure.

In these above-mentioned cases, a Power Path Controller Circuit will be helpful. Basically, a power path control circuit will switch the main power of the circuit board depending on the power source available by controlling the path from where the power comes into the circuit.

In this project, we will build a dedicated power path controller system that will switch the power input of the load from primary power to the auxiliary power during the primary power failure and also again change the power source auxiliary to primary during the primary power restored phase. This is a very essential circuit to be built to support the uninterrupted power supply application state during the input power is changing from primary to auxiliary or auxiliary to the primary. In other words, it can work like UPS for Arduino and Raspberry Pi Projects and it can also be used for multiple batteries charging from a single charger.


The requirement of the circuit is specified as below-

  1. The load current will be up to 3A.
  2. The maximum voltage will be 12V for an adapter (primary power) and 9V as a battery (secondary power)

LTC4412 Power Path Controller

The main controller that is selected for the circuit is the LTC4412 from Analog Devices (linear technologies). This is a low-loss power path controller system that automatically switches between two DC sources and simplifies the load sharing operations. As this device supports adapter voltage ranges from 3 volts to 28 volts and supports battery voltage ranges from 2.5 volts to 25 volts. Thus, it serves the above requirement of the input voltage. In the below image, the pinout diagram of LTC4412 is shown-

LTC4412 Pinout

However, it has two input sources, one is the primary, and the other one is the auxiliary. The primary power source (Wall adapter in our case) has priority over the auxiliary power source (battery in this case). Therefore, whenever the primary power source is present, the auxiliary power source will automatically get disconnected. The difference between these two input voltages is only 20mV. Thus, if the primary power source gets 20mV higher than the auxiliary power source, the load gets connected with the primary power source.

The LTC4412 has two additional pins - Control and status. The control pin can be used to digitally control the input to force the MOSFET to turn off, whereas the status pin is an open-drain output pin that can be used to sink 10uA of current and can be used to control an additional MOSFET with an external resistor. This can also be interfaced with a microcontroller for getting the presence signal of the auxiliary power source. LTC4412 also provides reverse polarity protection for the Battery. But since we are working with power supplies, here you can also check out other designs like Over Voltage Protection, Over current Protection, Reverse polarity Protection, Short Circuit Protection, Hot Swap controller, etc. which might come in handy

Another component is to use two P-Channel MOSFETs for controlling the auxiliary and primary power sources. For this purpose, FDC610PZ is used as a P channel, -30V, -4.9A MOSFET that is suitable for the operation of 3A of load switching. It has a low RDSON resistance of 42 mili-ohms which makes it suitable for this application without an additional heat sink.

Therefore, the detailed BOM is-

  1. LTC4412
  2. P-Channel MOSFET- FDC610PZ - 2 pcs
  3. 100k resistor
  4. 2200uF capacitor
  5. Relimate connector - 3 pcs
  6. PCB

LTC4412 Power Path Controller Circuit Diagram

LTC4412 Power Path Controller Circuit Diagram

The circuit has two operating conditions, one is the loss of primary power and the other one is the recovery of primary power. The major job is done by the controller LTC4412. The LTC4412 connects the output load with the auxiliary power whenever the primary power voltage falls 20 mV less than the auxiliary power voltage. In this situation, the status pin sinks current and turns on the auxiliary MOSFET.

In other working conditions, whenever the primary power input goes 20 mV above the auxiliary power source, the load is again gets connected with the primary power source. The status pin then goes into the open-drain condition and will turn off the P-Channel MOSFET.

These two situations not only automatically change the power source depending on the primary power failure but also makes switchover if the primary voltage drops significantly.

The sense pin provides power to the internal circuitry if the VIN does not get any voltage and also senses the voltage of the primary power supply unit.

The larger output capacitor of 2200uF 25V will provide sufficient filtration during the switch off phases. At the small duration time when the switch over will took place, the capacitor will provide power to the load.

PCB Board Design

To test the circuit, we need a PCB because the LTC4412 IC is in the SMD package. In the below image, the top side of the board is shown-

PCB Board Design

The design is done as a single-sided board. There are 3 wire jumpers also required in the PCB. Two additional optional inputs and output pins are also provided for the control and status related operations. A microcontroller unit can be interfaced in those two pins if required, but we won’t be doing that in this tutorial.

PCB Board Layout

In the above image, the bottom side of the PCB is shown where two MOSFETs of Q1 and Q2 are displayed. However, the MOSFETs do not require additional heat sinks but in the design, the PCB heat sink is created. These will reduce the power dissipation across the MOSFETs.

Power Path Controller Testing

Power Path Controller PCB

The two above images are showing the PCB of the power path controller that was designed previously. However, the PCB is a hand-etched version and it will serve the purpose. The components are being soldered properly in the PCB.

LTC4412 Power Path Controller

To test the circuit, an Adjustable DC load is connected across the output that is drawing almost 1 Amp of current. If you don’t have a Digital DC load, you can also build your own Adjustable DC load using Arduino.

For testing purposes, I faced a shortage of the battery (it’s COVID-19 lockdown here), and hence a bench power supply is used that has two outputs. One channel is set to 9V and the other one is set to 12V. The 12V channel is disconnected to see the result on the output and reconnected the channel to check the performance of the circuit.

You can check out the video linked below for the detailed demonstration of how the circuit works. I hope you enjoyed the project and learned something useful. If you have any questions, leave them in the comment section below or use our forums for other technical questions. 

Sours: https://circuitdigest.com/electronic-circuits/power-path-controller-system-using-ltc4412-to-switch-between-primary-and-auxillary-power
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