Fuse connector car

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Fuse (automotive)

Class of fuses used to protect the wiring and electrical equipment for vehicles

Automotive fuses are a class of fuses used to protect the wiring and electrical equipment for vehicles. They are generally rated for circuits no higher than 32 volts direct current, but some types are rated for 42-volt electrical systems. They are occasionally used in non-automotive electrical products. Automotive fuses are typically housed inside one or more fuse boxes (also called an integrated power module (IPM)) within the vehicle, typically on one side of the engine compartment and/or under the dash near the steering wheel. Some fuses or circuit breakers may nonetheless be placed elsewhere, such as near the cabin fan or air bag controller. They also exist as circuit breakers that are resettable using a switch.[1]

There may be a fuse for ignition off draw (IOD), which controls the drawing of electric current in a vehicle while it is shut off; removing this fuse while the vehicle is shut off for more than a few weeks will prevent excessive depletion of the battery.

Blade type[edit]

Blade type fuses come in six physical sizes: Micro2, Micro3, low-profile (LP) Mini, Mini, Regular, Maxi

Blade fuses (also called spade or plug-in fuses), with a plastic body and two prongs that fit into sockets, are mostly used in automobiles.

Each fuse is printed with the rated current in amperes on the top.

These types of fuses come in six different physical dimensions:

  • Micro2.
  • Micro3.
  • LP-mini (APS), also known as low-profile mini.Unofficially, the "low-profile mini" fuse is sometimes incorrectly called "Micro" since the term means smaller than mini, but recently fuses using the Micro name have been released.
  • Mini (APM / ATM). The mini fuses were developed in the 1990s.
  • Regular (APR / ATC / ATO / ATS) blade-type fuses, also known as standard, were developed in 1976 as ATO by Littelfuse[2] for low voltage use in motor vehicles. Bussmann makes the ATC[3] that also complies with the same ISO 8820-3 and SAE J1284 standards. OptiFuse, a newer entrant in the market, makes regular (APR / ATC / ATO) fuses that meet the same standards.[4]
  • Maxi (APX), heavy-duty.


Blade type fuses can be mounted in:

  • Fuse blocks (made of porcelain, slate, or other refractory material). Fuse blocks offer a method of mounting several fuses together or large fuses separately .
  • In-line fuse holders, with two standards: IEC publication 257 1968 Amendment no. 2 to this publication dated January 1989 and UL-standard no. 512. They help to save space. An inline fuse is often seen in add-on electrical accessories, where the manufacturer does not know the electrical current limit of the circuit you are going to patch into. This offers sufficient protection for that individual accessory, without regard to any other devices that might share the same circuit.
  • Dual slot fuse holders let you turn one fuse slot into two (in some way, similar to a power strip, but for fuses).
  • Fuse clips. Fuse clips can be inserted into a printed circuit board.

Size groups[edit]

Blade sizeBlade groupDimensions L × W × HCommon ratings (maximum current)
Micro2APT, ATR9.1 × 3.8 × 15.3 mm5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
Micro3ATL14.4 × 4.2 × 18.1 mm5, 7.5, 10, 15
(low profile)
APS, ATT10.9 × 3.81 × 8.73 mm2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
MiniAPM, ATM10.9 × 3.6 × 16.3 mm2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
RegularAPR, ATC,[3] ATO,[2] ATS[5]19.1 × 5.1 × 18.5 mm0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40
MaxiAPX29.2 × 8.5 × 34.3 mm20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100, 120

Where space permits, a miniature circuit breaker is sometimes used to replace a blade-type fuse in the same fuse holder.

Blade fuses use a common coloring scheme for the Micro2, Micro3, low-profile (LP) Mini, Mini, and regular size fuses, and a partial color similarity with the maxi size fuses. The following table shows the commonly available fuses for each size group.

Mini, Regular, and Maxi Blade type fuses

Regular fuses (ATO) rated 0.5 A, 35 A and 40 A are not mentioned in the DIN standards,[6] but are available in some products from Littelfuse, among others.

Bosch type[edit]

Bosch type fuse (used in older cars)

Bosch type fuses (also known as continental, torpedo, European, or GBC type fuses) are used in old (often European) automobiles. The physical dimension of this type of fuse is 6×25 mm with conical ends. Bosch type fuses usually use the same color-coding for the rated current. The DIN standard is 72581/1.

Color coding[edit]

ColorCurrent rating
 Yellow5 A
 White8 A
 Red16 A
 Blue25 A
 Grey40 A

Lucas type[edit]

Lucas type fuses are used in old British-made or assembled automobiles. The physical length of the Lucas ceramic type of fuse is either 1 inch or 1.25 inch, with conical ends. Lucas glass tube fuses have straight ends. Lucas type fuses usually use the same color-coding for the rated current. Lucas fuses have three ratings; the continuous current they are designed to carry, the instantaneous current at which they will fuse, and the continuous current at which they will also fuse. The figure found on Lucas fuses is the continuous fusing current which is twice the continuous ampere rating that the system should be using; this can be a source of confusion when replacing Lucas fuses with non Lucas fuses. The Lucas 1/4" diameter glass tube fuse have a different length as compared to the standard US item. The Lucas 1/4" diameter glass tube fuse is 1 and 5/32" [≈29.4 mm] long, while the US standard 1/4" glass tube fuse is 1 and 1/4" [≈32.0 mm] long. However many Lucas fuse holders permit the longer US version to be installed easily.

Color coding[edit]

Color Continuous ampere (=rated current) Instantaneous fusing ampereContinuous fusing ampere
Blue 1.5 3.5 3
Yellow 2.25 5 4.5
Red on yellow 2.5 6 5
Green 3 7 6
Nut brown 4 10 8
Red on green 5 12 10
Green on black 5 12 10
Red on brown 6 14 12
Light brown 7.5 18 15
Pink 12.5 30 25
White 17.5 40 35
Purple on yellow 25 60 50
Yellow on red 30 75 60

Glass tube type[edit]

North-American built automobiles up to at least 1986 had electrical systems protected by cylindrical glass cartridge fuses rated 32 volts DC and current ratings from 4 amperes to 30 amperes. These are known as "SFE" fuses, as they were designed by the Society of Fuse Engineers to prevent the insertion of a grossly inadequate or unsafe fuse into the vehicle's fuse panel.[7][8] These SFE fuses all have a 1⁄4 inch diameter, and the length varies according to the rating of the fuse.

  • A 4 A SFE 4 fuse is 5⁄8 inch long (the same dimension as an AGA fuse of any rating),
  • a 6 A SFE 6 fuse is 3⁄4 inch long,
  • a 7.5 A SFE 7.5 fuse is 7⁄8 inch long (same as an AGW fuse of any rating),
  • a 9 A SFE 9 fuse is 7⁄8 inch long (same as an AGW fuse of any rating),
  • a 14 A SFE 14 fuse is 11⁄16 inch long,
  • a 20 A SFE 20 fuse is 11⁄4 inch long (same as an AGC fuse of any rating), and
  • a 30 A SFE 30 fuse is 17⁄16 inches long.[7]

There are a number of lookalike fuses which can easily be confused with these. In general this type of fuse will have an "AG" label of some kind, which originally stood for "Automobile Glass".[9] There are at least seven different sizes of fuses with a 1/4 inch diameter. The fuses listed are the most common for the size, which is always a fast-acting fuse:

  • 1AG size, type AGA, 1 A to 30 A, 1/4 inch (6.3mm) diameter by 5⁄8 inch (15.9mm) long[7]
  • 2AG size, type AGB, 0.177" (4.5mm) diameter by 0.588" (14.9mm) long (frequently replaced with 5mm diameter by 15mm long international size fuse (aka 5 x 15mm - now more readily available)[10]
  • 3AG size, type AGC, 0.125 A to 50 A, 1/4 inch diameter (6.3mm) by 11⁄4 inch (31.8mm) long[11]
  • 4AG size, type AGS, 9⁄32 inch (7.1mm) diameter by 11⁄4 inch (31.8mm) long[10]
  • 5AG size, type AGU, 1 A to 60 A, 13⁄32 inch (10.3mm) diameter by 11⁄2 inch (38.1mm) long.[7] Also called "Midget fuses."[11]
  • 7AG size, type AGW, 1 A to 30 A, 1/4 inch diameter (6.3mm) by 7⁄8 inch (22.2mm) long[7]
  • 8AG size, type AGX, 1 A to 30 A, 1/4 inch (6.3mm) diameter by 1 inch (25.4mm) long[11]
  • 9AG size, type AGY, 50 A, 1/4 inch (6.3mm) diameter by 17⁄16 inch (36.5mm) long[7]
  • UK size, type UK, 35 A to 50 A, 1/4 inch (6.3mm) diameter by 11⁄4 inch (31.8mm) long[7]

These and other fuses are still being manufactured for many applications, including for AC circuits and DC uses. Some are time delayed, slow reacting, or have leads for terminals used in circuits without a fuse holder.[11][8] Many of the fuse dimensions and characteristics are published by the Society of Automotive Engineers as Standard SAE J 554.

Limiter type[edit]

Limiter fuses consist of a metal strip for currents over 10 amperes. Also referred to as Current Limiting Fuses, they feature an internal fuse element that melts when current passing through the fuse element is within the specified current limiting range of the fuse. As the fuse element melts, it creates a high resistance to reduce the magnitude and duration of the current flowing through the fuse to protect the electrical circuit and connected equipment.[12] Frequently, these are used in close proximity to starter battery fuse boxes. They are used also in electric vehicles, e.g., in forklift trucks. Because strip fuses require the use of tools for replacement they are therefore legally considered non-serviceable components for end-users.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuse_(automotive)

How Wires, Fuses, and Connectors Work

The main job of the fuse is to protect the wiring. Fuses should be sized and located to protect the wire they are connected to. If a device like your car radio suddenly draws enough current to blow the fuse, the radio is probably already toast. The fuse is there to protect the wire, which would be much harder to replace than the radio.

Most cars have two fuse panels. The one in the engine compartment holds the fuses for devices like the cooling fans, the anti-lock brake pump and the engine control unit -- all of which are located in the engine compartment. Another fuse panel, usually located in the dashboard near the driver's knees, holds fuses for the devices and switches located in the passenger compartment.

We saw in the last section how the heat build-up in the wire depends on the resistance and the amount of current flowing through the wire. Fuses are really just a special type of wire in a self-contained connector. Most automotive fuses today have two blade connectors and a plastic housing that contains the conductor. There are also some fuses that are in the wiring of the car, called fusible links.

The conductor inside the fuse is made of a metal similar to solder. It has a lower melting point than the wire itself. The size of the conductor is calibrated very carefully so that when the rated current is reached, enough heat is generated to melt the conductor and so break the circuit.

When a fuse is blown, it must be replaced before the circuit will work. A blown fuse must be replaced with a fuse of the same amperage.

Checking Fuses

The most foolproof way to check a fuse is to pull it out of its receptacle and hook up a continuity tester to both blades of the fuse. But if you do this while the fuse is plugged in, you could get continuity through a path other than the fuse (for instance, both sides of the wire may be grounded when you check the fuse). You can usually tell if a fuse is blown by a visual inspection:

Now let's move on to connectors.

Sours: https://auto.howstuffworks.com/wfc2.htm
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Introduction: How to Add a Circuit to Your Car

Maybe you are also in a situation where you want some extra functionality in your car.

Be it an extra Output, a central door locking system or an integrated coffee maker.

In this instructable I want to show you how to properly add a new circuit to your car using an add-a-fuse-adapter.
You can also watch it as a Video on my new YouTube channel.

Safety Note: You should only use this method to add circuits that use less than 10 Ampere of current, because it partly uses your car's original wiring. For circuits that operate at higher current's, such as Audio amplifier's you need to run a seperated wire from the positive terminal of your battery to your device and do not forget to add a fuse near the power source.

Always use wires and switches with a suitable size and insulate your wiring to prevent short circuits.

Step 1: Materials and Tools

For this project you will only need a few things.
The materials are the following:

  • an add-a-fuse adapter + a suitable fuse (There are different sizes. Use the size that your fuses have.)
  • some wire with the right cross-section (see down below)
  • isolation tape and zip ties
  • crimp connectors (ring, flat and wire to wire)
  • a switch that can handle the current your need or a smaller switch + a relay (magnetic switch)
  • your new device (a phone charger in my case)

And you will also need a basic set of tools including:

  • a multimeter
  • a pair of pliers and a wire cutter
  • a crimping tool
  • a screwdriver + different bits and nuts
  • plastic tools
  • a flashlight
  • a drill

When you picked everything up go to your car and start working.

Choosing the correct wire size is very important . If the wires are to thin they overheat and can cause a fire. A simple formula to determine the size you need is this one:

( I x L x 0,018 ) / U = A

I : the current that will flow through your cables

L : the total length of the wires in meters ( in this case from the fuse box to your grounding)

U : The maximum Voltage loss you want to have in your wiring ( I recommend 0,5 V)

A : the right cross section in mm^2 (for americans there are tables to find the AWG equivalent)

Step 2: Measuring Your Fuse Slots

The first thing you need to do is locate your fuse box. It can be under the hood or inside your dashboard or both, many modern cars have more than one fuse box. Your owners manual will tell you were it is.

Open it and use your fuse removal tool to remove one fuse at a time. Connect the negative wire of your multimeter to your cars body, set it to 20V DC and measure the voltage of both pins. First measure without the key plugged in.
If a slot's pin shows 12V this means 2 things:

  1. This slot does always have power. You would use such a slot for devices such as an alarm system or our charger that should be able to charge a phone while the car is parked.
  2. It is the input, the other pin is the output and should measure ~ 0V more on that in the next step.

Reinsert the fuse and mark the slot with a post-it or some tape.
If you need a slot that is powered when the key is in position 1 for devices like a radio, you search for a slot that has no power when the key is not inserted, but is powered when it's in position one. Mark it in a different colour if you are connecting more than one device.
If you want a device to only have power in key position two, you follow a similar procedure.
Keep on measuring until you found the right slot for your application.

Step 3: How Does an Add-a-fuse-adapter Work

I mentioned that it is important to know where the input and the output of the slot is. I'd like to explain the reason for that with this little animation .

Your fuse slot has two pins(1) the input is connected to the positive terminal of the battery (2) and the output goes to your original device(3). The battery and the device are also connected through your cars body, they are grounded.
The bottom slot of the add a fuse adapter is for your original fuse (5) that, as usual, completes the original circuit (6).
The top slot is for your new fuse. It connects the input or the positive terminal of the battery to your new device and closes your new the circuit(7).
If you plug the adapter in the wrong way (8), your new circuit won't work without the original fuse (9). As if this wasn't already bad enough, when both fuses are inserted the current for both circuits runs through the original fuse (10) , which will probably cause it to burn out (11).
Now you know why it is important to plug the adapter in the right way.

Step 4: Finding a Way for Your Wires (Corsa C Specific)

So you found all the slots and know a spot where you want to mount your device? Than it is time to run the wire in between the two. For this you will probably have to take a few parts of your car apart. Which parts you need to remove is of course very vehicle specific. This step will cover how to do it in my 2005 Corsa C.

On the outside:

  1. The first thing that needs to be removed is the wiper. It will probably be rust-welded to the thread and some force will be required to remove it. You simply use a wrench, that fits nicely around the thread and a Hammer (also good to relieve pressure, if you get frustrated). Protect your car with an old towel and carefully hammer onto the thread several times while pushing the wrench upwards. Eventually it will come off.
  2. Open the hood and unscrew the two screws that hold the water reflector in place. Squeeze it out and put it to the side. You won't be able to remove it completely, as the cleaning nozzles are still attached.
  3. Now you have access to the body control module's cover. Unscrew its' 7 screws and take it out. As you are already taking it out, inspect the sealing. It is probably corroded which is a common problem in the Corsa C and leads to water flowing into your footwell. You can replace it with some window sealing.

Inside the car:

  1. Remove the small storage compartment under the steering wheel by releasing the two noses on the top of it. This is pretty tricky.
  2. After the small compartment is removed you can unscrew the two screws that hold the big panel under the steering wheel in place and pull it out from the bottom.
  3. Pull the seats to the front and remove the 2 screws on the back of the center console, then pull them back again and remove the two screws on the front. You are now able to lift the center console up a little bit. This will allow you to stick tools or your hands under it from both sides.
  4. Also remove your radio with a suitable removal tool.

Step 5: Pulling the Wires Throug Your Car (slightly Corsa Specific)

You now have a way for your wires to go through. Unfortunately there is an obstacle. An almost fully packed rubber tubing. How are you going to pull the wire through this? Luckily there is also a trick to handle this. You can use a thick piece of garden wire and cover the tip with tape or shrink tubing but the better solution is to use a thinner wire, fold it 4 times and twist it.

Now you have a special tool with a round tip. Start pushing it through from one side of the tube while navigating it from the outside with your other hand. This is the trickiest part of the whole project and it might take some time, keep calm.

When you eventually reach the point where the tip comes out on the other side, hook your cable up to the and and secure it with tape. Use your pliers to pull it through and thread the wire into your car, so that it comes out in the footwell. From there you lead it to the radio slot from behind. Pull it out of the slot and push it back in downwards. Stick your hand under the middle console from the side to grab it and pull it out there. Thread it through the hole of the original 12V output and you are finished.

Step 6: Crimping the Connectors

This step is actually pretty straightforward. You remove the insulation of your cable, put it into the crimp connector on the adapter and compress it with your crimping tool or your pliers. You can also put some shrink tubing or isolation tape around the connection to prevent it from corroding.
Insert the fuses and plug the adapter in the right way.

Step 7: Connecting Your Device

Time to mount and connect you device, but before you can mount it you need to make a grounding. I crimped 3 wires into a cable shoe - not the best solution - but I also soldered it and added shrink tubing. I atached it to a screw under the middle console.

I made myself a nice little panel with several switches because I want to connect more than one new device. I also soldered wires to them and crimped flat connectors onto every cables end.

My switches do also have angel eye illumination and ,as I am mounting the panel where my original 12V output, which was also illuminated, was located, I will connect it to my original pin (shematic 1).

You can also connect the illumination to the switches middle pin or to the positive terminal of your device , so that it indicates when the device is turned on.

Wrap the connections with isolation tape and hide the wiring.
Test if everything works as it is supposed to and secure the wires.
Now reassemble your interior.

Step 8: Enjoy the Advanced Functionality

After you are done making your dream of an advanced car a reality, you can finally enjoy the advantages that it brings to you. Go for a ride and show your new gadget around.

I hope this instructable was helpful for your project and I would really like to know if you like the way it was presented to you. If you have any questions feel free to ask. As this was my first video project I am also curious to know what you think about the video. Feedback of any kind is appreciated. Good luck with your future projects and have a great day :).

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Sours: https://www.instructables.com/How-to-Add-a-Circuit-to-Your-Car/

Fuse Taps for Automotive Fuse Blocks

Fuse Tap Options

We offer fuse tap devices for the most common fuse types found in automotive fuse blocks. Please be sure to select the type of fuse tap that corresponds with the fuses in your vehicle. The Battery Doctor® fuse tap lineup includes:

See individual product listings for additional information and specifications.

Fuse Tap Installation

What follows is a very basic guide to installing a fuse tap. As with any electrical project, please use caution to reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to equipment.

  1. Disconnect the vehicle’s battery power by removing the battery cables or via a disconnect switch.
  2. Pull the selected fuse from its circuit slot. (See below to learn how to select the best circuit to use for your fuse tap.)
  3. Insert the wire from the new electrical device into the connector on the fuse tap. Be sure to cut, strip, and crimp the wire, as needed, as you would in any other electrical connection.
  4. Install the fuse tap into the open circuit in the fuse block
  5. Insert the fuse you pulled from the fuse block into one of the fuse tap’s circuit, then insert a new fuse for the newly added electrical component
  6. Reconnect the vehicle’s battery power

Please note: There are two ways to install a Battery Doctor® fuse tap:

  • A fuse tap installed at the “cold” end of a slot in a fuse block is protected by the existing fuse
  • A fuse tap installed at the “hot” end of a fuse slot requires the installation of an additional inline fuse for the new circuit

Which Fuse Slot Should I Use for My Fuse Tap?

There are several important factors to consider when choosing the circuit in your automotive fuse block to use for fuse tap installation.

  • If possible, use a circuit slot that is already empty
  • If the above is not an option, select a fuse that powers a utility function (such as the rear window wiper, audio system, etc.) rather than one that powers a critical function (such as the ABS, headlights, etc.)
  • Select a fuse that is properly located to allow for safe wire connection and installation, as the pigtail will likely need to be tucked in under the fuse block cover

Contact Us for Fuse Taps & More

WirthCo offers fuse taps and other Battery Doctor® fuses, accessories, and related products for automotive electrical systems. Request a quote on the Battery Doctor® products you need, or contact us for more information.

Sours: https://www.wirthco.com/

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