commence - Meaning in Malayalam
Word Forms / Inflectionscommenced(verb past tense)
commencing(verb present participle)
commences(verb present tense)
Definitions and Meaning of commence in English
- take the first step or steps in carrying out an action
Synonyms : begin, get, get down, set about, set out, start, start outExamples
- Get working as soon as the sun rises!
- He began early in the day
- Let's get down to work now
- The first tourists began to arrive in Cambodia
- We began working at dawn
- Who will start?
- set in motion, cause to start
Synonyms : begin, lead off, startExamples
- begin a new chapter in your life
- The Iraqis began hostilities
- The U.S. started a war in the Middle East
- get off the ground
Synonyms : embark on, start, start upExamples
- I start my day with a good breakfast
- The afternoon session begins at 4 PM
- The blood shed started when the partisans launched a surprise attack
- We began the new semester
- We embarked on an exciting enterprise
- Who started this company?
Synonyms of commence
begin, get, get down, set about, set out, start, start out, lead off, embark on, start up
More matches for commence
English to Malayalam Dictionary: commence
Meaning and definitions of commence, translation of commence in Malayalam language with similar and opposite words. Spoken pronunciation of commence in English and in Malayalam.
Tags for the entry "commence"
What commence means in Malayalam, commence meaning in Malayalam, commence definition, explanation, pronunciations and examples of commence in Malayalam.
Also see: commence in Hindi
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verb. ['kəˈmɛns'] take the first step or steps in carrying out an action.
- break in
- jump off
- get down
- get to
- set about
- get weaving
- get moving
- come on
- get going
- bestir oneself
- get rolling
- get started
- set out
- start out
- strike out
- stand still
- commencer (Old French (842-ca. 1400))
Words that Rhyme with Commence
Example sentences of the word commence
1. Verb, non-3rd person singular present
Orangutan mothers typically commence the weaning process when their offspring are somewhere between 3 and 4 years old.
2. Verb, base form
If everyone participates voluntarily, the drill is short and the cruise can commence.
3. Noun, singular or mass
Record, from the voyage charter, the time that loading or discharge is to commence.
Quotes containing the word commence
1. Intellectual growth should commence at birth and cease only at death.
- Albert Einstein
2. Never start with a clear idea of storyline. Instead, commence blindly, with a vague notion of trying to include a reference to your favourite band, gift shop, or chocolate bar.
- Alan C. Martin
3. The study of mathematics is apt to commence in disappointment... We are told that by its aid the stars are weighed and the billions of molecules in a drop of water are counted. Yet, like the ghost of Hamlet's father, this great science eludes the efforts of our mental weapons to grasp it.
- Alfred North Whitehead, An Introduction to Mathematics
verb. ['kəˈmɛns'] set in motion, cause to start.
- start up
- set off
- usher in
- lead off
- embark on
- commencer (Old French (842-ca. 1400))
verb. ['kəˈmɛns'] get off the ground.
- start up
- kick off
- lead off
- embark on
- commencer (Old French (842-ca. 1400))
Opposites of commence
Antonyms for commence
Dictionary of opposites and antonyms
Sort opposites alphabetically
Opposite and antonym definition
An antonym is a word with the opposite meaning of another word. Antonyms are words which mean the opposite of other words.
Opposites and Synonyms are used to:
- Define a word. That's why they can be found in dictionary descriptions.
- Avoid repetition in a piece of writing
- Enrich your writing.
Examples of opposites
The word cautious can be considered to be the opposite of the world audacious. Confirm and deny are words with opposite meanings. Misandry can be seen as an antonym of misogyny. The opposite of the word liberty is captivity. Modest and conceited are words that are antonyms. Delayed and precocious are two of the opposites that can be found in this online dictionary of opposites.
Using Antonym Dictionary
The dictionary of opposites (antonym dictionary) enables users to find the most suitable terms for the particular context, rather than just those that first spring to mind. Antonym dictionary is an alternative to the dictionary of synonyms. Searching for the opposite of a word also makes it possible to find terms that are better suited to describe a characteristic, purpose, or function of the thing, person, or action in question. Finally, the dictionary of opposites helps writers to avoid repeating words within the same piece of text, thereby improving their writing style.
Most frequently searched opposites
Opposites of the most frequently searched synonyms
This article is about the general meaning of "synonym". For other uses, see Synonym (disambiguation).
Words or phrases having the same meaning
A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in a given language. For example, in the English language, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another: they are synonymous . The standard test for synonymy is substitution: one form can be replaced by another in a sentence without changing its meaning. Words are considered synonymous in only one particular sense: for example, long and extended in the contextlong time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with exactly the same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field. The former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms.
Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language) because etymology, orthography, phonic qualities, connotations, ambiguous meanings, usage, and so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat; long and extended are only synonyms in one usage and not in others (for example, a long arm is not the same as an extended arm). Synonyms are also a source of euphemisms.
Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U.S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, and the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym.
The analysis of synonymy, polysemy, hyponymy, and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation.
The word is borrowed from Latinsynōnymum, in turn borrowed from Ancient Greeksynōnymon (συνώνυμον), composed of sýn (σύν 'together, similar, alike') and -ōnym- (-ωνυμ-), a form of onoma (ὄνομα 'name').
Sources of synonyms
Synonyms are often some from the different strata making up a language. For example, in English, Norman French superstratum words and Old English substratum words continue to coexist. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people, liberty and archer, and the Saxon-derived folk, freedom and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English.
Loanwords are another rich source of synonyms, often from the language of the dominant culture of a region. Thus most European languages have borrowed from Latin and ancient Greek, especially for technical terms, but the native terms continue to be used in non-technical contexts. In East Asia, borrowings from Chinese in Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese often double native terms. In Islamic cultures, Arabic and Persian are large sources of synonymous borrowings.
For example, in Turkish, kara and siyah both mean 'black', the former being a native Turkish word, and the latter being a borrowing from Persian. In Ottoman Turkish, there were often three synonyms: water can be su (Turkish), âb (Persian), or mâ (Arabic): "such a triad of synonyms exists in Ottoman for every meaning, without exception". As always with synonyms, there are nuances and shades of meaning or usage.
In English, similarly, we often have Latin and Greek terms synonymous with Germanic ones: thought, notion (L), idea (Gk); ring, circle (L), cycle (Gk). English often uses the Germanic term only as a noun, but has Latin and Greek adjectives: hand, manual (L), chiral (Gk); heat, thermal (L), caloric (Gk). Sometimes the Germanic term has become rare, or restricted to special meanings: tide, time/temporal, chronic.
Many bound morphemes in English are borrowed from Latin and Greek and are synonyms for native words or morphemes: fish, pisci- (L), ichthy- (Gk).
Another source of synonyms is coinages, which may be motivated by linguistic purism. Thus the English word foreword was coined to replace the Romance preface. In Turkish, okul was coined to replace the Arabic-derived mektep and mederese, but those words continue to be used in some contexts.
Uses of synonyms
Synonyms often express a nuance of meaning or are used in different registers of speech or writing.
Different technical fields may appropriate synonyms for specific technical meanings.
Some writers avoid repeating the same word in close proximity, and prefer to use synonyms: this is called elegant variation. Many modern style guides criticize this.
Synonyms can be any part of speech, as long as both words belong to the same part of speech. Examples:
- noun: drink and beverage
- verb: buy and purchase
- adjective: big and large
- adverb: quickly and speedily
- preposition: on and upon
Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student. Similarly, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died.
A thesaurus or synonym dictionary lists similar or related words; these are often, but not always, synonyms.
- The word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym.
- Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym
- Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to, respectively, a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, and car is a hyponym of vehicle.
- Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation but different meanings. For example, witch and which are homophones in most accents (because they are pronounced the same).
- Homographs are words that have the same spelling but different meanings. For example, one can record a song or keep a record of documents.
- Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation and spelling but different meanings. For example, rose (a type of flower) and rose (past tense of rise) are homonyms.
- ^Stanojević, Maja (2009), "Cognitive synonymy: a general overview"(PDF), Facta Universitatis, Linguistics and Literature Series, 7 (2): 193–200.
- ^DiMarco, Chrysanne, and Graeme Hirst. "Usage notes as the basis for a representation of near-synonymy for lexical choice." Proceedings of 9th annual conference of the University of Waterloo Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary and Text Research. 1993.
- ^Grambs, David. The Endangered English Dictionary: Bodacious Words Your Dictionary Forgot. WW Norton & Company, 1997.
- ^"World Architecture Images- The White House". www.essential-architecture.com. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
- ^Hirst, Graeme. "Ontology and the lexicon." Handbook on ontologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009. 269-292.
- ^Turney, Peter D. (2008). "A Uniform Approach to Analogies, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associations". Proceedings of the 22Nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics - Volume 1. COLING '08. Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics: 905–912. arXiv:0809.0124. ISBN .
- ^Oxford English Dictionary, 1st edition, 1919, s.v.
- ^Bradley, Henry (1922). The Making of English. Macmillan and Company, Limited.
- ^Ziya Gökalp, The Principles of Turkism, 1968, p. 78
- ^Stavros Macrakis and Angelos Tsiromokos's answers to "Are there any words in English which are synonyms but have separate ancient Greek and Latin origin and the Latin word is not etymologically derivative of the older ancient Greek?" on Quora.com 
- ^Carl Darling Buck, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, 1949, reprinted as ISBN 0226079376
- ^Geoffrey Lewis, The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success, 1999, ISBN 0198238568, p. 44, 70, 117
- ^"Synonym dictionary words and phrases". www.allacronyms.com. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
|Look up synonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Of commence opposite
Frequently Asked Questions About commence
How is the word commence different from other verbs like it?
Some common synonyms of commence are begin, inaugurate, initiate, start, and usher in. While all these words mean "to take the first step in a course, process, or operation," commence can be more formal or bookish than begin or start.
commenced a conversation
How does the word begin relate to other synonyms for commence?
Begin, start, and commence are often interchangeable, with begin, opposed to end, being the most general.
begin a trip
Where would inaugurate be a reasonable alternative to commence?
The words inaugurate and commence are synonyms, but do differ in nuance. Specifically, inaugurate suggests a beginning of some formality or notion of significance.
the discovery of penicillin inaugurated a new era in medicine
When is initiate a more appropriate choice than commence?
In some situations, the words initiate and commence are roughly equivalent. However, initiate implies taking a first step in a process or series that is to continue.
initiated diplomatic contacts
When could start be used to replace commence?
The synonyms start and commence are sometimes interchangeable, but start, opposed to stop, applies especially to first actions, steps, or stages.
the work started slowly
How do usher in and inaugurate relate to one another, in the sense of commence?
Usher in is somewhat less weighty than inaugurate.
ushered in a period of economic decline
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is the text of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (Pub. L. 88-38) (), as amended, as it appears in volume 29 of the United States Code, at section 206(d). The , which is part of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (), and which is administered and enforced by the , prohibits sex-based wage discrimination between men and women in the same establishment who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort and responsibility under similar working conditions. Cross references to the as enacted appear in italics following the section heading. Additional provisions of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, as amended, are included as they appear in volume 29 of the United States Code.
SEC. 206. [Section 6]
(d) Prohibition of sex discrimination
(1) No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except where such payment is made pursuant to (i) a seniority system; (ii) a merit system; (iii) a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or (iv) a differential based on any other factor other than sex: Provided, That an employer who is paying a wage rate differential in violation of this subsection shall not, in order to comply with the provisions of this subsection, reduce the wage rate of any employee.
(2) No labor organization, or its agents, representing employees of an employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall cause or attempt to cause such an employer to discriminate against an employee in violation of paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) For purposes of administration and enforcement, any amounts owing to any employee which have been withheld in violation of this subsection shall be deemed to be unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under this chapter.
(4) As used in this subsection, the term "labor organization" means any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work.
ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS OF EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963
To prohibit discrimination on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Equal Pay Act of 1963."
DECLARATION OF PURPOSE
Not Reprinted in U.S. Code [Section 2]
(a) The Congress hereby finds that the existence in industries engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce of wage differentials based on sex-
(1) depresses wages and living standards for employees necessary for their health and efficiency;
(2) prevents the maximum utilization of the available labor
(3) tends to cause labor disputes, thereby burdening, affecting, and obstructing commerce;
(4) burdens commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce; and
(5) constitutes an unfair method of competition.
(b) It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act, through exercise by Congress of its power to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations, to correct the conditions above referred to in such industries.
[Section 3 of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 amends section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act by adding a new subsection (d). The amendment is incorporated in the revised text of the Fair Labor Standards Act.]
Not Reprinted in U.S. Code [Section 4]
The amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon the expiration of one year from the date of its enactment: Provided, That in the case of employees covered by a bona fide collective bargaining agreement in effect at least thirty days prior to the date of enactment of this Act entered into by a labor organization (as defined in section 6(d)(4) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended) [subsection (d)(4) of this section], the amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon the termination of such collective bargaining agreement or upon the expiration of two years from the date of enactment of this Act, whichever shall first occur.
Approved June 10, 1963, 12 m.
[In the following excerpts from the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, authority given to the Secretary of Labor is exercised by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for purposes of enforcing the Equal Pay Act of 1963.]
ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES
SEC. 209 [Section 9]
For the purpose of any hearing or investigation provided for in this chapter, the provisions of sections 49 and 50 of title 15 [Federal Trade Commission Act of September 16, 1914, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 edition)] (relating to the attendance of witnesses and the production of books, papers, and documents), are made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Administrator, the Secretary of Labor, and the industry committees.
COLLECTION OF DATA
SEC. 211 [Section 11]
(a) Investigations and inspections
The Administrator or his designated representatives may investigate and gather data regarding the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment in any industry subject to this chapter, and may enter and inspect such places and such records (and make such transcriptions thereof), question such employees, and investigate such facts, conditions, practices, or matters as he may deem necessary or appropriate to determine whether any person has violated any provision of this chapter, or which may aid in the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter. Except as provided in section 212 [section 12] of this title and in subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator shall utilize the bureaus and divisions of the Department of Labor for all the investigations and inspections necessary under this section. Except as provided in section 212 [section 12] of this title, the Administrator shall bring all actions under section 217 [section 17] of this title to restrain violations of this chapter.
(b) State and local agencies and employees
With the consent and cooperation of State agencies charged with the administration of State labor laws, the Administrator and the Secretary of Labor may, for the purpose of carrying out their respective functions and duties under this chapter, utilize the services of State and local agencies and their employees and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, may reimburse such State and local agencies and their employees for services rendered for such purposes.
Every employer subject to any provision of this chapter or of any order issued under this chapter shall make, keep, and preserve such records of the persons employed by him and of the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment maintained by him, and shall preserve such records for such periods of time, and shall make such reports therefrom to the Administrator as he shall prescribe by regulation or order as necessary or appropriate for the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter or the regulations or orders thereunder. The employer of an employee who performs substitute work described in section 207(p)(3) [section 7(p)(3)] of this title may not be required under this subsection to keep a record of the hours of the substitute work.
(d) Homework regulations
The Administrator is authorized to make such regulations and orders regulating, restricting, or prohibiting industrial homework as are necessary or appropriate to prevent the circumvention or evasion of and to safeguard the minimum wage rate prescribed in this chapter, and all existing regulations or orders of the Administrator relating to industrial homework are continued in full force and effect.
SEC. 213 [Section 13]
(a) Minimum wage and maximum hour requirements
The provisions of sections 206 [section 6] (except subsection (d) in the case of paragraph (1) of this subsection) and section 207 [section 7] of this title shall not apply with respect to-
(1) any employee employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity (including any employee employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teacher in elementary or secondary schools), or in the capacity of outside salesman (as such terms are defined and delimited from time to time by regulations of the Secretary, subject to the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of Title 5 [theAdministrative Procedure Act], except that an employee of a retail or service establishment shall not be excluded from the definition of employee employed in a bona fide executive or administrative capacity because of the number of hours in his workweek which he devotes to activities not directly or closely related to the performance of executive or administrative activities, if less than 40 per centum of his hours worked in the workweek are devoted to such activities); or
[Note: Section 13(a)(2) (relating to employees employed by a retail or service establishment) was repealed by Pub. L. 101-157, section 3(c)(1), November 17, 1989.]
(3) any employee employed by an establishment which is an amusement or recreational establishment, organized camp, or religious or non-profit educational conference center, if (A) it does not operate for more than seven months in any calendar year, or (B) during the preceding calendar year, its average receipts for any six months of such year were not more than 33 1/3 per centum of its average receipts for the other six months of such year, except that the exemption from sections 206 and 207 [sections 6 and 7] of this title provided by this paragraph does not apply with respect to any employee of a private entity engaged in providing services or facilities (other than, in the case of the exemption from section 206 [section 6] of this title, a private entity engaged in providing services and facilities directly related to skiing) in a national park or a national forest, or on land in the National Wildlife Refuge System, under a contract with the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture; or
[Note: Section 13(a)(4) (relating to employees employed by anestablishment which qualified as an exempt retail establishment) was repealed by Pub. L. 101-157, Section 3(c)(1), November 17, 1989.]
(5) any employee employed in the catching, taking, propagating, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life, or in the first processing, canning or packing such marine products at sea as an incident to, or in conjunction with, such fishing operations, including the going to and returning from work and loading and unloading when performed by any such employee; or
(7) any employee to the extent that such employee is exempted by regulations, order, or certificate of the Secretary issued under section 214 [section 14] of this title; or
(8) any employee employed in connection with the publication of any weekly, semiweekly, or daily newspaper with a circulation of less than four thousand the major part of which circulation is within the county where published or counties contiguous thereto; or
[Note: Section 13(a)(9) (relating to motion picture theater employees) was repealed by section 23 of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974. The 1974 amendments created an exemption for such employees from the overtime provisions only in section 13(b)27.]
(10) any switchboard operator employed by an independently owned public telephone company which has not more than seven hundred and fifty stations; or
[Note: Section 13(a)(11) (relating to telegraph agency employees) was repealed by section 10 of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974. The 1974 amendments created an exemption from the overtime provisions only in section 13(b)(23), which was repealed effective May 1, 1976.]
(12) any employee employed as a seaman on a vessel other than an American vessel; or
[Note: Section 13(a)(13) (relating to small logging crews) was repealed by section 23 of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974. The 1974 amendments created an exemption for such employees from the overtime provisions only in section 13(b)(28).]
[Note: Section 13(a)(14) (relating to employees employed in growing and harvesting of shade grown tobacco) was repealed by section 9 of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974. The 1974 amendments created an exemption for certain tobacco producing employees from the overtime provisions only in section 13(b)(22). The section 13(b)(22) exemption was repealed, effective January 1, 1978, by section 5 of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1977.]
(15) any employee employed on a casual basis in domestic service employment to provide babysitting services or any employee employed in domestic service employment to provide companionship services for individuals who (because of age or infirmity) are unable to care for themselves (as such terms are defined and delimited by regulations of the Secretary); or
(16) a criminal investigator who is paid availability pay under section 5545a of Title 5 [Law Enforcement Availability Pay Act of 1994]; or
(17) any employee who is a computer systems analyst, computer programmer, software engineer, or other similarly skilled worker, whose primary duty is—
(A) the application of systems analysis techniques and procedures, including consulting with users, to determine hardware, software, or system functional specifications;
(B) the design, development, documentation, analysis, creation, testing, or modification of computer systems or programs, including prototypes, based on and related to user or system design specifications;
(C) the design, documentation, testing, creation, or modification of computer programs related to machine operating systems; or
(D) a combination of duties described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) the performance of which requires the same level of skills, and
who, in the case of an employee who is compensated on an hourly basis, is compensated at a rate of not less than $27.63 an hour.
(g) Certain employment in retail or service establishments, agriculture
The exemption from section 206 [section 6] of this title provided by paragraph (6) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any employee employed by an establishment (1) which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, another establishment the activities of which are not related for a common business purpose to, but materially support the activities of the establishment employing such employee; and (2) whose annual gross volume of sales made or business done, when combined with the annual gross volume of sales made or business done by each establishment which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the establishment employing such employee, exceeds $10,000,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated).
SEC. 215 [Section 15]
(a) After the expiration of one hundred and twenty days from June 25, 1938 [the date of enactment of this Act], it shall be unlawful for any person-
(1) to transport, offer for transportation, ship, deliver, or sell in commerce, or to ship, deliver, or sell with knowledge that shipment or delivery or sale thereof in commerce is intended, any goods in the production of which any employee was employed in violation of section 206 [section 6] or section 207 [section 7] of this title, or in violation of any regulation or order of the Secretary issued under section 214 [section 14] of this title, except that no provision of this chapter shall impose any liability upon any common carrier for the transportation in commerce in the regular course of its business of any goods not produced by such common carrier, and no provision of this chapter shall excuse any common carrier from its obligation to accept any goods for transportation; and except that any such transportation, offer, shipment, delivery, or sale of such goods by a purchaser who acquired them in good faith in reliance on written assurance from the producer that the goods were produced in compliance with the requirements of this chapter, and who acquired such goods for value without notice of any such violation, shall not be deemed unlawful;
(2) to violate any of the provisions of section 206 [section6] or section 207 [section 7] of this title, or any of the provisions of any regulation or order of the Secretary issued under section 214 [section 14] of this title;
(3) to discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed any complaint or instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under or related to this chapter, or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or has served or is about to serve on an industry committee;
(4) to violate any of the provisions of section 212 [section12] of this title;
(5) to violate any of the provisions of section 211(c) [section 11(c)] of this title, or any regulation or order made or continued in effect under the provisions of section 211(d) [section 11(d)] of this title, or to make any statement, report, or record filed or kept pursuant to the provisions of such section or of any regulation or order thereunder, knowing such statement, report, or record to be false in a material respect.
(b) For the purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section proof that any employee was employed in any place of employment where goods shipped or sold in commerce were produced, within ninety days prior to the removal of the goods from such place of employment, shall be prima facie evidence that such employee was engaged in the production of such goods.
SEC. 216 [Section 16]
(a) Fines and imprisonment
Any person who willfully violates any of the provisions of section 215 [section 15] of this title shall upon conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment for not more than six months, or both. No person shall be imprisoned under this subsection except for an offense committed after the conviction of such person for a prior offense under this subsection.
(b) Damages; right of action; attorney's fees and costs; termination of right of action
Any employer who violates the provisions of section 206 [section 6] or section 207 [section 7] of this title shall be liable to the employee or employees affected in the amount of their unpaid minimum wages, or their unpaid overtime compensation, as the case may be, and in an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. Any employer who violates the provisions of section 215(a)(3) [section 15(a)(3)] of this title shall be liable for such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to effectuate the purposes of section 215(a)(3) [section 15(a)(3)] of this title, including without limitation employment, reinstatement,promotion, and the payment of wages lost and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. An action to recover the liability prescribed in either of the preceding sentences may be maintained against any employer (including a public agency) in any Federal or State court of competent jurisdiction by any one or more employees for and in behalf of himself or themselves and other employees similarly situated. No employee shall be a party plaintiff to any such action unless he gives his consent in writing to become such a party and such consent is filed in the court in which such action is brought. The court in such action shall, in addition to any judgment awarded to the plaintiff or plaintiffs, allow a reasonable attorney's fee to be paid by the defendant, and costs of the action. The right provided by this subsection to bring an action by or on behalf of any employee, and the right of any employee to become a party plaintiff to any such action, shall terminate upon the filing of a complaint by the Secretary of Labor in an action under section 217 [section 17] of this title in which (1) restraint is sought of any further delay in the payment of unpaid minimum wages, or the amount of unpaid overtime compensation, as the case may be, owing to such employee under section 206 [section 6] or section 207 [section 7] of this title by an employer liable therefor[sic] under the provisions of this subsection or (2) legal or equitable relief is sought as a result of alleged violations of section 215(a)(3) [section 15(a)(3)] of this title.
(c) Payment of wages and compensation; waiver of claims; actions by the Secretary; limitation of actions
The Secretary is authorized to supervise the payment of the unpaid minimum wages or the unpaid overtime compensation owing to any employee or employees under section 206 [section 6] or section 207 [section7] of this title, and the agreement of any employee to accept such payment shall upon payment in full constitute a waiver by such employee of any right he may have under subsection (b) of this section to such unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. The Secretary may bring an action in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover the amount of the unpaid minimum wages or overtime compensation and an equal amount as liquidated damages. The right provided by subsection (b) of this section to bring an action by or on behalf of any employee to recover the liability specified in the first sentence of such subsection and of any employee to become a party plaintiff to any such action shall terminate upon the filing of a complaint by the Secretary in an action under this subsection in which a recovery is sought of unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under sections 206 and 207 [sections 6 and 7] of this title or liquidated or other damages provided by this subsection owing to such employee by an employer liable under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, unless such action is dismissed without prejudice on motion of the Secretary. Any sums thus recovered by the Secretary of Labor on behalf of an employee pursuant to this subsection shall be held in a special deposit account and shall be paid, on order of the Secretary of Labor, directly to the employee or employees affected. Any such sums not paid to an employee because of inability to do so within a period of three years shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts. In determining when an action is commenced by the Secretary of Labor under this subsection for the purposes of the statutes of limitations provided in section 255(a) of this title [section 6(a)of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947], it shall be considered to be commenced in the case of any individual claimant on the date when the complaint is filed if he is specifically named as a party plaintiff in the complaint, or if his name did not so appear, on the subsequent date on which his name is added as a party plaintiff in such action.
(d) Savings provisions
In any action or proceeding commenced prior to, on, or after August 8, 1956 [the date of enactment of this subsection], no employer shall be subject to any liability or punishment under this chapter or the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 [29 U.S.C. 251 et seq.] on account of his failure to comply with any provision or provisions of this chapter or such Act (1) with respect to work heretofore or hereafter performed in a workplace to which the exemption in section 213(f) [section 13(f)] of this title is applicable, (2) with respect to work performed in Guam, the Canal Zone or Wake Island before the effective date of this amendment of subsection (d), or (3) with respect to work performed in a possession named in section 206(a)(3) [section 6(a)(3)] of this title at any time prior to the establishment by the Secretary, as provided therein, of a minimum wage rate applicable to such work.
(e)(1)(A) Any person who violates the provisions of sections 212 or 213(c) [sections 12 or 13(c)] of this title, relating to child labor, or any regulation issued pursuant to such sections, shall be subject to a civil penalty of not to exceed—
(i) $11,000 for each employee who was the subject of such a violation; or
(ii) $50,000 with regard to each such violation that causes the death or serious injury of any employee under the age of 18 years, which penalty may be doubled where the violation is a repeated or willful violation.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "serious injury" means—
(i) permanent loss or substantial impairment of one of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, tactile sensation);
(ii) permanent loss or substantial impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, including the loss of all or part of an arm, leg, foot, hand or other body part; or
(iii) permanent paralysis or substantial impairment that causes loss of movement or mobility of an arm, leg, foot, hand or other body part.
(2) Any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 206 or 207 [section 6 or 7], relating to wages, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $1,100 for each such violation.
(3) In determining the amount of any penalty under this subsection, the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the person charged and the gravity of the violation shall be considered. The amount of any penalty under this subsection, when finally determined, may be-
(A) deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged;
(B) recovered in a civil action brought by the Secretary in any court of competent jurisdiction, in which litigation the Secretary shall be represented by the Solicitor of Labor; or
(C) ordered by the court, in an action brought for a violation of section 215(a)(4) [section 15(a)(4)] of this title or a repeated or willful violation of section 215(a)(2) [section 15(a)(2)] of this title, to be paid to the Secretary.
(4) Any administrative determination by the Secretary of the amount of any penalty under this subsection shall be final, unless within 15 days after receipt of notice thereof by certified mail the person charged with the violation takes exception to the determination that the violations for which the penalty is imposed occurred, in which event final determination of the penalty shall be made in an administrative proceeding after opportunity for hearing in accordance with section 554 of Title 5 [Administrative Procedure Act], and regulations to be promulgated by the Secretary.
(5) Except for civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 [section 12] of this title, sums collected as penalties pursuant to this section shall be applied toward reimbursement of the costs of determining the violations and assessing and collecting such penalties, in accordance with the provision of section 9a of Title 29 [An Act to authorize the Department of Labor to make special statistical studies upon payment of the cost thereof and for other purposes]. Civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 [section 12] of this title shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury.
SEC. 217 [Section 17]
The districts courts, together with the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, and the District Court of Guam shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown, to restrain violations of section 215 [section 15] of this title, including in the case of violations of section 215(a)(2) of this title the restraint of any withholding of payment of minimum wages or overtime compensation found by the court to be due to employees under this chapter (except sums which employees are barred from recovering, at the time of the commencement of the action to restrain the violations, by virtue of the provisions of section 255 of this title [section 6 of thePortal-to-Portal Act of 1947].
RELATION TO OTHER LAWS
SEC. 218 [Section 18]
(a) No provision of this chapter or of any order thereunder shall
excuse noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance establishing a minimum wage higher than the minimum wage established under this chapter or a maximum work week lower than the maximum workweek established under this chapter, and no provision of this chapter relating to the employment of child labor shall justify noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance establishing a higher standard than the standard established under this chapter. No provision of this chapter shall justify any employer in reducing a wage paid by him which is in excess of the applicable minimum wage under this chapter, or justify any employer in increasing hours of employment maintained by him which are shorter than the maximum hours applicable under this chapter.
SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS
SEC. 219 [Section 19]
If any provision of this chapter or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
Approved June 25, 1938.
[In the following excerpts from the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947, the authority given to the Secretary of Labor is exercised by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for purposes of enforcing the Equal Pay Act of 1963.]
PART IV - MISCELLANEOUS
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
SEC. 255 [Section 6]
Any action commenced on or after May 14, 1947 [the date of theenactment of this Act], to enforce any cause of action for unpaid minimum wages, unpaid overtime compensation, or liquidated damages, under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act [41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.], or the Bacon-Davis Act [40 U.S.C. 276a et seq.]-
(a) if the cause of action accrues on or after May 14, 1947 [the date of the enactment of this Act]-may be commenced within two years after the cause of action accrued, and every such action shall be forever barred unless commenced within two years after the cause of action accrued,except that a cause of action arising out of a willful violation may be commenced within three years after the cause of action accrued;
DETERMINATION OF COMMENCEMENT OF FUTURE ACTIONS
SEC. 256 [Section 7]
In determining when an action is commenced for the purposes of section 255 [section 6] of this title, an action commenced on or after May 14, 1947 [the date of the enactment of this Act] under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act [41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.], or the Bacon-Davis Act [40 U.S.C. 276a et seq.], shall be considered to be commenced on the date when the complaint is filed; except that in the case of a collective or class action instituted under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, or the Bacon-Davis Act, it shall be considered to be commenced in the case of any individual claimant—
(a) on the date when the complaint is filed, if he is specifically named as a party plaintiff in the complaint and his written consent to become a party plaintiff is filed on such date in the court in which the action is brought; or
(b) if such written consent was not so filed or if his name did not so appear—on the subsequent date on which such written consent is filed in the court in which the action was commenced.
RELIANCE IN FUTURE ON ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS, ETC.
SEC. 259 [Section 10]
(a) In any action or proceeding based on any act or omission on or after May 14, 1947 [the date of the enactment of this Act], no employer shall be subject to any liability or punishment for or on account of the failure of the employer to pay minimum wages or overtime compensation under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act [41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.], or the Bacon-Davis Act [40 U.S.C. 276a et seq.], if he pleads and proves that the act or omission complained of was in good faith in conformity with and in reliance on any written administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, or interpretation, of the agency of the United States specified in subsection (b) of this section, or any administrative practice or enforcement policy of such agency with respect to the class of employers to which he belonged. Such a defense, if established, shall be a bar to the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that after such act or omission, such administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, interpretation, practice, or enforcement policy is modified or rescinded or is determined by judicial authority to be invalid or of no legal effect.
(b) The agency referred to in subsection (a) shall be-
(1) in the case of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.]- the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor;
SEC. 260 [Section 11]
In any action commenced prior to or on or after May 14, 1947 [the date of the enactment of this Act] to recover unpaid minimum wages, unpaid overtime compensation, or liquidated damages, under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], if the employer shows to the satisfaction of the court that the act or omission giving rise to such action was in good faith and that he had reasonable grounds for believing that his act or omission was not a violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.],the court may, in its sound discretion, award no liquidated damages or award any amount thereof not to exceed the amount specified in section 216 [section 16] of this title.
SEC. 262 [Section 13]
(a) When the terms "employer", "employee", and "wage" are used in this chapter in relation to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], they shall have the same meaning as when used in such Act of 1938.
Not Reprinted in U.S. Code [Section 14]
If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this Act and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
Not Reprinted in U.S. Code [Section 15]
This Act may be cited as the 'Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947.'
Approved May 14, 1947.
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