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Hawker

Typhoon

The Hawker Aircraft Typhoon was single-seat, fighter-bomber designed against Air Ministry Specification F/37 which was eventually issued in March   A year earlier however (March ), Hawker Aircraft had pre-empted its issue by producing designs ahead of its eventual release.

 

Initial prototypes built to the specification were named Hawker Tornado and its story runs along very similar lines to that of the Typhoon. Affectionately known as the ‘Tiffie’, the Hawker Typhoon was intended as a high-speed, high-altitude interceptor-fighter to replace the Hawker Hurricane and the Vickers Supermarine Spitfire. 

 

The Hawker Typhoon however, was dimensionally designed larger than the Spitfire to accommodate newer power-plants and the type was evolved around the use of the powerful 'H-block' Napier Sabre cylinder sleeve-valve engine and the 'X-block' Rolls-Royce Vulture engine.  Subsequent aircraft were often referred to as the 'N' and the 'R' after their relative engine manufacturer.  

 

The armament options selected were either configured with 12 x machine guns on the Typhoon IA, or 4 x 20mm Hispano cannons on the Typhoon IB.

 

Of the two prototypes built, the first (P) was flown on 24th February in the hands of Hawker Chief Test Pilot Philip Lucas and although it was initially flown unarmed, it was later fitted with 12 x Browning machine guns.  

 

After that initial flight and during a following test flight, alarmingly Lucas spotted that the aircraft had suffered a mid-flight structural failure and despite being able to see daylight through the split, he refused to bail out, successfully returning to Langley and landing the important test aircraft, winning himself the George Medal in the process.

 

With war still raging in Europe, Lord Beaverbrook had ordered that valuable manufacturing resources should be concentrated of the 5 major RAF aircraft (Hurricane and Spitfire fighters and the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, the Vickers Wellington and the Bristol Blenheim bombers) and subsequently all further development testing and plans for any production for the Typhoon were postponed.

 

As a result of the delay, it was much later on 3rd May that the second prototype (P) actually flew and it was this aircraft that served as the prototype for the Typhoon IB, fitted with 4 x 20mm Hispano cannons.

 

Typhoon IA R fourth aircraft built by Gloster This gun Typhoon IA R was the fourth production Hawker Typhoon to be built by Gloster Aircraft Co.

 

The Hawker Typhoon was of conventional, all-metal construction with the forward fuselage based upon a typical Hawker design of duralumin or steel tube sub-structure. The rear fuselage was of semi-monocoque construction with the wing span being close to 42 ft (41' 7") with the aircraft highpoint being some 15ft off the ground.
 

The wing possessed great structural strength and its comparatively thick section provided large internal capacity for fuel tanks and for the housing of the heavy cannon armaments fitted. The external carriage of rockets, bombs or drop tanks also resulted in a potent capability as a long-range, ground attack aircraft.

 

Hawker Typhoon IB JR Sqn fitted to carry underwing bombsA Hawker Typhoon IB JR of Sqn fitted to carry underwing bombs.

 

The pilot’s cockpit initially featured a ‘car door’ style entry with a solid fairing, aft of the pilot. The latter was found to be operationally undesirable and after aircraft the design was modified to incorporate transparencies behind the pilot, whilst retaining the same general shape and the ‘car door’ entry. Early production aircraft were modified to this standard but further evolution to a one-piece sliding ‘bubble’ canopy became the production standard from November , having been first tested on a Hawker Typhoon (R) in January

 

Hawker Typhoon IB DNHawker Typhoon IB DN showing the second style of cockpit canopy. This aircraft was used for tropical trials in Egypt.

 

Initial production aircraft used the 2, hp Sabre I engine with later aircraft being equipped with either the 2, hp Sabre IIA, 2, hp Sabre IIB or the 2, hp Sabre IIC. Late production aircraft also adopted four-blade propellers as well as featuring an enlarged tail-plane.

 

 

Hawker Typhoon IB R with clear view canopyHawker Typhoon IB R was the first aircraft to trial the final clear view canopy.

 

Hawker Aircraft built 15 production examples of the Typhoon after which production was transferred to Gloster Aircraft at Hucclecote, who built the remaining 3, aircraft. 

 

The first Gloster-built production aircraft (R) flew on 27th May , just three weeks after the flight of the second prototype. The first Hawker production aircraft (R) flew on 9th November
 
A total of production aircraft were completed as Hawker Typhoon IA before a decision was taken to standardise on the cannon-equipped Typhoon IB.
 
The type suffered a number of early teething troubles and was first used operationally in May Difficulties were experienced with the supercharged Sabre engine which was initially very unreliable with its performance at altitude seriously degraded by the thickness of the wing (19% thickness at the wing root) which was required by the 20mm cannon and their ammunition. This inadequacy was overcome by the addition of a turbo-charger to the Sabre engine, with the work being carried out by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough.  Early production numbers were also hampered by an overall lack of engine availability.

 

Some aircraft suffered a number of failures of the monocoque rear fuselage structure. Sydney Camm, and his Design Team at Hawker Aircraft, identified these as being only small structural failures. With the addition of some strengthening plates, the Hawker Typhoon proved to be a very powerful, robust and an exceptionally stable gun platform. It was also the first RAF fighter to demonstrate a maximum speed in level flight which was greater than mph.

 

As the war progressed and the skies over southern England, the mighty Vickers Supermarine Spitfire was suffering increased losses against the new Focke Wulf Fw, who were raiding RAF aerodromes. The increased reliability of the Hawker Typhoon became very significant in countering the Luftwaffe’s ‘Tip and Run’ low level nuisance raids. This led to Squadron Leader Roland Beamont (later Test Pilot of so many famous British-built jet fighters) reporting the aircraft as having ‘many excellent qualities’.

 

The Hawker Typhoon's comparative lack of performance at altitude however, led to the decision in to focus Typhoon operations to a ground attack role, particularly prior to, and following the invasion of Normandy in June

 

Rocket equipped Hawker Typhoon IB at RAF NortholtHM King George VI inspecting a rocket equipped Typhoon IB MN at RAF Northolt in

 

In this new role, the Hawker Typhoon performed admirably as it could carry 2 x 1,lb bombs or 8 x 3-inch rockets with 60lb of warheads, carried underwing (in addition to the 4 x 20mm cannon).

 

Rocket equipped Hawker Typhoons were used specifically in this role from October when No Squadron made their first ‘rocket attack’. If required, 12 or 16 rockets could be carried dependent of the sortie altitude and distance. Eighteen squadrons of rocket equipped Hawker Typhoons were deployed in the ground attack role post-invasion with the 2nd Tactical Air Force in Europe.

 

Most of the production aircraft were completed as Hawker Typhoon IBs although in , a single aircraft (R) was converted to a prototype night-fighter (N.F. Mk. IB) and fitted with AI Mk IV radar equipment and a night-flying cockpit.

 

Five aircraft were modified to ‘Tropical’ standard by the fitting of an air filter in the fairing behind the main radiator housing. Three of these aircraft (including DN) underwent hot weather trials in Egypt with No. (RAAF) Squadron during

 

Amother variant which was used in some numbers from early , was a tactical reconnaissance version, the FR.IB, with its two vertical cameras in the rear fuselage.

 

Some of these aircraft also replaced the port-inner cannon with a forward-facing cine camera and around 60 such conversions were completed out of the planned   The main reason being for the low number was reported as the adaptation suffered from enormous engine and airframe vibration with a consequential reduction in picture quality. This also resulted in them being totally withdrawn from use by January

 

The later evolution of the Hawker Tempest (which originated as the Hawker Typhoon II) and the Centaurus-powered Hawker Sea Fury (both of which married a thin wing to the original design concept) unlocked its potential in the interceptor role for which the Typhoon had originally been intended.

 

Hawker Typhoon IB MN RAF MuseumThe last surviving Hawker Typhoon IB MN on display at the RAF Museum, Hendon.

 

At its height, the type was used by 26 Squadrons which is impressive considering the design almost failed during its initial stages.  It must be said nevertheless, that it turned into a real force in a ground attack role and led the way in the development of aircraft as ‘weapons platforms’.

 

In addition to the RAF, Hawker Typhoons served with the Australian, Canadian and New Zealand Royal Air Forces.

 

Only one complete Hawker Typhoon survives today (MN) although it does seem to travel around and was last reported as being on loan to the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa.

Sours: https://www.baesystems.com/en/heritage/hawker-typhoon

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The Hawker Typhoon 1A &#; 1B: Worst RAF Fighters in WWII?
by Arnold Blumberg

In the British War office accepted a new aircraft design eventually designated the Hawker Hurricane Mark 1. It was England’s first monoplane single seat fighter and was armed with eight caliber machine guns, and flew in excess of mph. It entered service with the Royal Air Force in December However, even before the Hurricane joined the British air service, its replacement—the Hawker Typhoon—was on the drawing board.

In March the British Air Ministry advised Hawker Aircraft Company Limited, the manufacturer of the new cantilever low wing monoplane design, that the Hawker Typhoon had to be able to achieve a speed of at least mph at an altitude of 20, feet, mount twelve Browning Machine guns, and be able to carry a combination of weaponry. The aircraft was to use the 2, hp Napier Sabre or Rolls-Royce engines. At 31 feet 11 inches long, 15 feet 3 inches high, with a wing span of 41 feet 7 inches, the Typhoon’s construction was a mix of bolted and welded duralumin, or steel tubes, and flush-riveted, semi-monocoque material. The wings possessed great strength, providing plenty of room for fuel tanks and heavy armament allowing the plane to be a steady weapons platform.

Despite its high production numbers, the Hawker Typhoon 1A and 1B were both plagued by a series of design and technical problems.

The Hawker Typhoon Was Plagued by Bad Starts, Exploding Cylinders, Carbon Monoxide Leaks

Intended as a high and medium altitude interceptor, the Hawker Typhoon’s development was held back in by the delay in the manufacture of the two proposed engines it was slated to employ. When one of these power plants, the 2, hp type cylinder liquid-cooled inline Sabre I was finally available, it was soon discovered this model was difficult to start (especially in cold weather), engine sleeve jams caused the cylinder to explode, and it could emit dangerous amounts of carbon monoxide into the cockpit. The result was that the first production Typhoons—all of them known as Typhoon 1A (the prototype had been first flown on February 24, )—were continuously plagued with technical problems besides the unreliable Sabre engine: mid-air structural failures of the joints between the forward and rear fuselage, and tail breakaways caused by engine jamming or violent tail vibration. Flight testing continued into mid with a new prototype, the Typhoon 1B, and despite its recurring problems, 1, units were ordered by the government.

Frantic to counter the growing aerial ascendency of the new German Focke-Wulf Fw fighter, British Fighter Command rushed Hawker Typhoons in to service during the summer of , with devastating results for the still teething aircraft. Pilots could not see behind them due to the armor plating, the planes had a nasty habit of losing their tails in flight, and it still had a poor climb rate; the aircraft was still did not make for a worthy air opponent. Although it had been designed as an all-altitude interceptor, its clashes with the Luftwaffe over the English Channel in mid proved it was inadequate for that role except at low level. Discussion within the RAF turned to making the Typhoon a night fighter, but that idea quickly went by the wayside; the planes&#; exhausts were in the pilot&#;s line-of-sight.

Continued Problems With the Typhoon 1B

Throughout and early , the RAF conducted tests on the at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment. Problems persisted with the model until and were not rectified until late in that year. However, following bomb load tests, the plane was cleared to carry two pound bombs. In addition, the Mark 1B was fitted with the more reliable 2, hp Sabre IIA engine which gave the fully loaded (13, pounds) bird a speed of mph, with a ceiling of 35, feet, and a range of miles. Speed-wise, it gave the ground attack Spitfire Mark XIV with its mph a run for its money. Most importantly, its speed outstripped the Messerschmitt Bf and the Focke-Wulf , whose models could travel by at rates of and mph, respectively.

As the Hawker Typhoon continued in service, so too did its mechanical problems. Oil coolers failed, so engines cut out upon landing, and tails snapped off either when the aircraft descended from high altitudes, or when it landed at speed knocking the pilot unconscious. During the first nine months of its operational service, more pilots lost their lives due to engine and structural failure than to enemy action. It was during this time (the second half of ) that the decision was made to use the plane not as an interceptor, but a fighter-bomber. Its new role started in August with strikes on enemy coastal targets in Northern France.

On October 25, , now armed with powerful 4 20mm cannons, plus 8 pound High Explosive Rockets, Hawker Typhoons made their first rocket attack when they struck targets near the French city of Caen. The mission, not a great success, resulted in three Typhoons lost. All told, during low-level attacks resulted in the loss of Typhoons in exchange for the downing of German aircraft including 52 Focke-Wulf s.

Despite its high production numbers, the Hawker Typhoon 1A and 1B were both plagued by a series of design and technical problems.

Hawker Typhoons During the D-Day Invasion

To support the D-Day invasion the Royal Air Force formed the 2nd Tactical Air Force, which among other aircraft contained 18 squadrons of Hawker Typhoons. During the first five days of June , the Typhoons put out of action all but one of the coastal radar installations on the Normandy coast. On D-Day itself, June 6, , the nearest German armored formation to the invasion beaches—the 21st Panzer Division—was attacked continuously by Typhoons, suffering 26 destroyed or abandoned tanks. As a result, only six panzers and a handful of infantry made it near enough the coast to menace the Allied landings. Once the beachhead was secured, the Typhoon units were tasked with providing close air support to the British 2nd Army. While performing this job, Typhoons, in conjunction with Mitchel Light Bombers, obliterated the command center of Panzergruppe West, the headquarters which controlled all the German armored forces in Normandy.

In early July, Typhoons were diverted to attack Adolf Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 facilities. That same month they pounced on Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s staff car as he was driving along an open road, seriously injuring the general. During the German Mortain Counterattack, and the Allied air attack on the Germans in the Falaise Pocket, Typhoons, while not directly destroying a large number of Wehrmacht tanks and other armored fighting conveyances, instilled so much fear in their crews that they panicked and abandoned their vehicles. During the four-month Normandy Campaign, Typhoon pilots were killed, 36 were captured and planes were lost to enemy action, mostly to ground fire. (Learn more about the Normandy Campaign and all wartime events—both momentous and obscure—by subscribing to WWII History magazine.) 

During the four years the Hawker Typhoon was in service, pilots of its 23 squadrons were lost. By war’s end, 3, Hawker Typhoons had been built. In September the Hawker Tempest, which had gone in to service in April , had replaced the Typhoon 1B. Unlike many other aircraft, all the Typhoons were scraped and not sold off; implying the RAF did not want to pass the Typhoon’s many shortcomings onto others.

Despite its high production numbers, the Hawker Typhoon 1A and 1B were both plagued by a series of design and technical problems.

Originally Published December 8,

Sours: https://warfarehistorynetwork.com//06/20/the-hawker-typhoon-1a-1b-worst-raf-fighters-in-wwii/
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Hawker Typhoon

This article is about the Second World War piston-powered fighter aircraft. For the later jet-powered fighter aircraft, see Eurofighter Typhoon.

"Tiffy" redirects here. For other uses, see Tifi.

The Hawker Typhoon (Tiffy in RAF slang) is a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft. It was intended to be a medium-high altitude interceptor, as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane but several design problems were encountered and it never completely satisfied this requirement.[3]

The Typhoon was originally designed to mount twelve inch ( mm)Browning machine guns and be powered by the latest 2,&#;hp engines. Its service introduction in mid was plagued with problems and for several months the aircraft faced a doubtful future.[3] When the Luftwaffe brought the formidable Focke-Wulf Fw into service in , the Typhoon was the only RAF fighter capable of catching it at low altitudes; as a result it secured a new role as a low-altitude interceptor.[4]

The Typhoon became established in roles such as night-time intruder and long-range fighter.[5] From late the Typhoon was equipped with bombs and from late RP-3 rockets were added to its armoury. With those weapons and its four 20mm Hispano autocannons, the Typhoon became one of the Second World War's most successful ground-attack aircraft.[6]

Design and development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The unarmed first prototype Typhoon P taken just before its first flight. The prototype had a small tail unit and a solid fairing behind the cockpit, which was fitted with "car door" access hatches; no inner wheel doors were fitted and the Sabre engine used three exhaust stubs either side of the cowling.

Even before Hurricane production began in March , Sydney Camm had embarked on designing its successor. Two preliminary designs were similar and were larger than the Hurricane. These later became known as the "N" and "R" (from the initial of the engine manufacturers), because they were designed for the newly developed Napier Sabre and Rolls-Royce Vulture engines respectively.[7] Both engines used 24 cylinders and were designed for over 2,&#;hp (1,&#;kW); the difference between the two was primarily in the arrangement of the cylinders – an H-block in the Sabre and an X-block in the Vulture.[8] Hawker submitted these preliminary designs in July but were advised to wait until a formal specification for a new fighter was issued.[8]

In March , Hawker received from the Air Ministry, Specification F/37 for a fighter which would be able to achieve at least &#;mph (&#;km/h) at 15, feet (4,&#;m) and specified a British engine with a two-speed supercharger. The armament fitted was to be twelve inch Browning machine guns with rounds per gun, with a provision for alternative combinations of weaponry.[9] Camm and his design team started formal development of the designs and construction of prototypes.[8][nb 1]

The basic design of the Typhoon was a combination of traditional Hawker construction (such as used in the earlier Hawker Hurricane) and more modern construction techniques; the front fuselage structure, from the engine mountings to the rear of the cockpit, was made up of bolted and welded duralumin or steel tubes covered with skin panels, while the rear fuselage was a flush-riveted, semi-monocoque structure.[8][nb 2] The forward fuselage and cockpit skinning was made up of large, removable duralumin panels, allowing easy external access to the engine and engine accessories and most of the important hydraulic and electrical equipment.[12][13]

The wing had a span of 41&#;feet 7&#;inches (&#;m), with a wing area of &#;sq&#;ft (&#;m2).[14] It was designed with a small amount of inverted gull wing bend; the inner sections had a 1° anhedral, while the outer sections, attached just outboard of the undercarriage legs, had a dihedral of 5+1&#;2°.[8] The airfoil was a NACA 22 wing section, with a thickness-to-chord ratio of % at the root tapering to 12% at the tip.[15]

The wing possessed great structural strength, provided plenty of room for fuel tanks and a heavy armament, while allowing the aircraft to be a steady gun platform.[16] Each of the inner wings incorporated two fuel tanks; the "main" tanks, housed in a bay outboard and to the rear of the main undercarriage bays, had a capacity of 40 gallons; while the "nose" tanks, built into the wing leading edges, forward of the main spar, had a capacity of 37 gallons each.[12][17] Also incorporated into the inner wings were inward-retracting landing gear with a wide track of 13&#;ft 6+3&#;4 in.[18]

By contemporary standards, the new design's wing was very "thick", similar to the Hurricane before it. Although the Typhoon was expected to achieve over &#;mph (&#;km/h) in level flight at 20,&#;ft, the thick wings created a large drag rise and prevented higher speeds than the &#;mph at 20, feet (6,&#;m) achieved in tests.[19][nb 3] The climb rate and performance above that level was also considered disappointing.[21] When the Typhoon was dived at speeds of over &#;mph (&#;km/h), the drag rise caused buffeting and trim changes. These compressibility problems led to Camm designing the Typhoon II, later known as the Tempest, which used much thinner wings with a laminar flow airfoil.[22]

Prototypes[edit]

The second prototype P in the standard RAF camouflage of , possibly with yellow undersurfaces. The retractable tailwheel and main wheels now had doors fitted. Six exhaust stubs and the later standardised four cannon armament were other changes from P

The first flight of the first Typhoon prototype, P, made by Hawker's Chief test Pilot Philip Lucas from Langley, was delayed until 24 February because of the problems with the development of the Sabre engine. Although unarmed for its first flights, P later carried 12 in (&#;mm) Brownings, set in groups of six in each outer wing panel; this was the armament fitted to the first Typhoons, known as the Typhoon IA.[3][nb 4]P also had a small tail-fin, triple exhaust stubs and no wheel doors fitted to the centre-section.[7] On 9 May the prototype had a mid-air structural failure, at the join between the forward fuselage and rear fuselage, just behind the pilot's seat. Philip Lucas could see daylight through the split but instead of bailing out, landed the Typhoon and was later awarded the George Medal.[23][24]

On 15 May, the Minister of Aircraft Production, Lord Beaverbrook, ordered that resources should be concentrated on the production of five main aircraft types (the Spitfire and Hurricane fighters and the Whitley, Wellington and Blenheim bombers). As a result, development of the Typhoon was slowed, production plans were postponed and test flying continued at a reduced rate.[25]

As a result of the delays the second prototype, P, first flew on 3 May P carried an armament of four belt-fed20&#;mm (&#;in) Hispano Mk II cannon, with rounds per gun and was the prototype of the Typhoon IB series.[3] In the interim between construction of the first and second prototypes, the Air Ministry had given Hawker an instruction to proceed with the construction of 1, of the new fighters. It was felt that the Vulture engine was more promising, so the order covered Tornadoes and Typhoons, with the balance to be decided once the two had been compared. It was also decided that because Hawker was concentrating on Hurricane production, the Tornado would be built by Avro and Gloster would build the Typhoons at Hucclecote.[23] Avro and Gloster were aircraft companies within the Hawker Siddeley group. As a result of good progress by Gloster, the first production Typhoon R was first flown on 27 May by Michael Daunt, just over three weeks after the second prototype.[3]

Operational service[edit]

Low-level interceptor[edit]

A Mark IB Typhoon US-Ain April It was flown by Squadron LeaderT.H.V Pheloung (New Zealand).[26][nb 5]An inch-wide (&#;mm) yellow recognition stripe is visible on the upper wing.

In , the Spitfire Vs, which equipped the bulk of Fighter Command squadrons, were outclassed by the new Focke-Wulf Fw and suffered many losses. The Typhoon was rushed into service with Nos. 56 and Squadrons in late , to counter the Fw This decision proved to be a disaster, several Typhoons were lost for unknown reasons, and the Air Ministry began to consider halting production of the type.

In August , Hawker's second test pilot, Ken Seth-Smith, while deputising for Chief Test Pilot Philip Lucas, carried out a straight and level speed test from Hawker's test centre at Langley, and the aircraft broke up over Thorpe, killing the pilot. Sydney Camm and the design team immediately ruled out pilot error, which had been suspected in earlier crashes. Investigation revealed that the elevator mass-balance had torn away from the fuselage structure. Intense flutter developed, the structure failed and the tail broke away. Modification to the structure and the control runs partially solved the structural problem. (The Philip Lucas test flight incident had been due to an unrelated failing.) Mod , which involved fastening external fishplates, or reinforcing plates, around the tail of the aircraft, and eventually internal strengthening, was only a partial remedy, and there were still failures right up to the end of the Typhoon's service life. The Sabre engine was also a constant source of problems, notably in colder weather, when it was very difficult to start, and it suffered problems with wear of its sleeve valves, with consequently high oil consumption. The cylinder engine also produced a very high-pitched engine note, which pilots found very fatiguing.

The Typhoon did not begin to mature as a reliable aircraft until the end of , when its excellent qualities – seen from the start by S/L Roland Beamont of Squadron – became apparent. Beamont had worked as a Hawker production test pilot while resting from operations, and had stayed with Seth-Smith, having his first flight in the aircraft at that time. During late and early , the Typhoon squadrons were based on airfields near the south and south-east coasts of England and, alongside two Spitfire XII squadrons, countered the Luftwaffe's "tip and run" low-level nuisance raids, shooting down a score or more bomb-carrying Fw s. Typhoon squadrons kept at least one pair of aircraft on standing patrols over the south coast, with another pair kept at "readiness" (ready to take off within two minutes) throughout daylight hours. These sections of Typhoons flew at feet (&#;m) or lower, with enough height to spot and then intercept the incoming enemy fighter-bombers. The Typhoon finally proved itself in this role; for example, while flying patrols against these low-level raids, (NZ) Squadron claimed 20 fighter-bombers, plus three bombers shot down, between mid-October and mid-July [27][nb 6]

The first two Messerschmitt Me fighter-bombers to be destroyed over the British Isles fell to the guns of Typhoons in August [29] During a daylight raid by the Luftwaffe on London on 20 January , four Bf G-4s and one Fw A-4 of JG 26 were destroyed by Typhoons.[30] As soon as the aircraft entered service, it was apparent the profile of the Typhoon resembled a Fw from some angles, which caused more than one friendly fire incident involving Allied anti-aircraft units and other fighters. This led to Typhoons first being marked up with all-white noses, and later with high visibility black and white stripes under the wings, a precursor of the markings applied to all Allied aircraft on D-Day.

Switch to ground attack[edit]

By , the RAF needed a ground attack fighter more than a "pure" fighter and the Typhoon was suited to the role (and less-suited to the pure fighter role than competing aircraft such as the Spitfire Mk IX). The powerful engine allowed the aircraft to carry a load of up to two 1, pounds (&#;kg) bombs, equal to the light bombers of only a few years earlier. The bomb-equipped aircraft were nicknamed "Bombphoons" and entered service with No. Squadron, formed in September [31][nb 7]

From September , Typhoons were also armed with four "60 lb" RP-3 rockets under each wing.[nb 8] In October , No. Squadron made the first Typhoon rocket attacks. Although the rocket projectiles were inaccurate and took considerable skill to aim and allow for ballistic drop after firing, "the sheer firepower of just one Typhoon was equivalent to a destroyer's broadside".[citation needed] By the end of , eighteen rocket-equipped Typhoon squadrons formed the basis of the RAF Second Tactical Air Force (2nd TAF) ground attack arm in Europe. In theory, the rocket rails and bomb-racks were interchangeable; in practice, to simplify supply, some 2nd TAF Typhoon squadrons (such as Squadron) used the rockets only, while other squadrons were armed exclusively with bombs (this also allowed individual units to more finely hone their skills with their assigned weapons).[33]

By the Normandy landings in June , 2 TAF had eighteen operational squadrons of Typhoon IBs, while RAF Fighter Command had a further nine.[34] The aircraft proved itself to be the most effective RAF tactical strike aircraft, on interdiction raids against communications and transport targets deep in North Western Europe prior to the invasion and in direct support of the Allied ground forces after D-Day. A system of close liaison with the ground troops was set up by the RAF and army: RAF radio operators in vehicles equipped with VHFR/T travelled with the troops close to the front line and called up Typhoons operating in a "cab rank", which attacked the targets, marked for them by smoke shells fired by mortar or artillery, until they were destroyed.[35]

Sqn.Typhoons on airfield B10/Plumetot, France, in July MNTP-Vhas the larger Tempest tailplane and a four-bladed propeller. A heavy dust cloud has been stirred up by the taxiing aircraft.

Against some of the Wehrmacht's heavier tanks, the rockets needed to hit the thin-walled engine compartment or the tracks to have any chance of destroying or disabling the tank. Analysis of destroyed tanks after the Normandy battle showed a hit-rate for the air-fired rockets of only 4%.[36] In Operation Goodwood (18–21 July), the 2nd Tactical Air Force claimed tanks destroyed.[nb 9] A total of were claimed by Typhoon pilots using rocket projectiles.[37] Once the area was secured, the British "Operational Research Section 2" analysts could confirm only ten out of the knocked out German AFVs found in the area were attributable to Typhoons using rocket projectiles.[37][38]

At Mortain, in the Falaise pocket, a German counter-attack that started on 7 August threatened Patton's break-out from the beachhead; this counter-attack was repulsed by 2nd Tactical Air Force Typhoons and the 9th USAAF. During the course of the battle, pilots of the 2nd Tactical Air Force and 9th USAAF claimed to have destroyed a combined total of tanks.[39] Only German tanks and assault guns participated in the battle and only 46 were lost – of which nine were verified as destroyed by Typhoons, four percent of the total claimed.[40]

However, after-action studies at the time were based on random sampling of wrecks rather than exhaustive surveys,[41] and the degree of overclaim attributed to Typhoon pilots as a result was statistically improbable in view of the far lower known level of overclaim by Allied pilots in air-to-air combat, where claims were if anything more likely to be mistaken. Allied and German witness accounts of Typhoon attacks on German armour indicate that RPs did kill tanks with fair probability. Horst Weber, an SS panzergrenadier serving with Kampfgruppe Knaust south of Arnhem in the later stages of Operation Market Garden, recalled that, during a battle with British 43rd Wessex Division on 23 September , "We had four Tiger tanks and three Panther tanks&#; We were convinced that we would gain another victory here, that we would smash the enemy forces. But then Typhoons dropped these rockets on our tanks and shot all seven to bits. And we cried We would see two black dots in the sky and that always meant rockets. Then the rockets would hit the tanks which would burn. The soldiers would come out all burnt and screaming with pain."[42]

The effect on the morale of German troops caught up in a Typhoon RP and cannon attack was decisive, with many tanks and vehicles being abandoned, in spite of superficial damage, such that, at Mortain, a signal from the German Army's Chief of Staff stated that the attack had been brought to a standstill by "due to the employment of fighter-bombers by the enemy, and the absence of our own air-support".[43] The 20&#;mm cannon also destroyed a large number of (unarmoured) support vehicles, laden with fuel and ammunition for the armoured vehicles.[44] On 10 July at Mortain, flying in support of the US 30th Infantry Division, Typhoons flew sorties in the afternoon that day, firing 2, rockets and dropping 80 short tons (73&#;t) of bombs.[45] They engaged the German formations while the US 9th Air Force prevented German fighters from intervening. Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander, said of the Typhoons; "The chief credit in smashing the enemy's spearhead, however, must go to the rocket-firing Typhoon aircraft of the Second Tactical Air Force&#; The result of the strafing was that the enemy attack was effectively brought to a halt, and a threat was turned into a great victory."[46]

Another form of attack carried out by Typhoons was "Cloak and Dagger" operations, using intelligence sources to target German HQs. One of the most effective of these was carried out on 24 October , when Typhoon Wing attacked a building in Dordrecht, where senior members of the German 15th Army staff were meeting; 17 staff officers and 36 other officers were killed and the operations of the 15th Army were adversely affected for some time afterwards.[47]

Armourers loading RP-3 rockets with 60 lb High Explosive heads onto steel Mk. I rails. The large hinged gun bay doors are open. The weathered Invasion stripes are on upper and lower wing surfaces, indicating this photo was taken some time in June

On 24 March , over Typhoons were sent on several sorties each, to suppress German anti-aircraft guns and Wehrmacht resistance to Operation Varsity, the Allied crossing of the Rhine that involved two full divisions of 16, troops and 1, gliders sent across the river. On 3 May , the Cap Arcona, the SS&#;Thielbek, and the Deutschland, large passenger ships in peacetime now in military service, were sunk in four attacks by RAF Hawker Typhoon 1Bs of No. 83 Group RAF, 2nd Tactical Air Force: the first by Squadron, second by Squadron led by Wing CommanderJohn Robert Baldwin, the third by Squadron led by Squadron Leader Martin T. S. Rumbold and the fourth by Squadron led by Squadron Leader K. J. Harding.[48]

The top-scoring Typhoon ace was Group Captain J. R. Baldwin ( Squadron and Commanding Officer Squadron, (Typhoon) Wing and (Typhoon) Wing), who claimed 15 aircraft shot down from to Some Axis aircraft were claimed by Typhoon pilots during the war.[49]

3, Typhoons were built, almost all by Gloster. Hawker developed what was originally an improved Typhoon II, but the differences between it and the Mk I were so great that it was effectively a different aircraft, and was renamed the Hawker Tempest. Once the war in Europe was over Typhoons were quickly removed from front-line squadrons; by October the Typhoon was no longer in operational use, with many of the wartime Typhoon units such as Squadron being either disbanded or renumbered.[50][51]

Captured Typhoons[edit]

By , with its change of role to ground attack, the Typhoon was constantly operating over enemy territory: inevitably some flyable examples fell into German hands. The first Typhoon to be flown by the Luftwaffe was EJSA-I of (NZ) Sqn. On 23 March , two aircraft flown by F/O Smith and F/S Mawson were on a "Rhubarb" over France.[nb 10] Just as they were crossing the coast at low altitude, Mawson's Typhoon was hit by light flak. He managed to belly-land in a field near Cany-Barville but the aircraft was captured before he could destroy it. The Typhoon was repaired and test flown at Rechlin (a German equivalent to RAE Farnborough), and later served as T9+GK with "Zirkus Rosarius". EJ overturned and was written off during a forced landing near Meckelfeld, on 10 August [26][52] On 14 February , another Typhoon was captured and later flown in Zirkus Rosarius. JP of Squadron force landed after engine failure near Blois, France; the pilot, F/O Proddow, evaded capture. This Typhoon crashed at Reinsehlen on 29 July , killing Feldwebel Gold.[26]

Modifications –[edit]

A Charles E. Brown photo of EK, "Fiji V, Morris Headstrom Fiji" a brand-new presentation aircraft, at Gloster's Hucclecoteairfield, April The photo gives a clear view of the "car-door" cockpit entry; the rear view mirror under a perspex blister can be seen on the hinged canopy roof.

As was usual with many front line Second World War RAF aircraft, the Typhoon was modified and updated regularly, so that a production example looked quite different from one built in In the last months of the war, a number of older aircraft were taken out of storage and overhauled, sometimes seeing active service for the first time; for example, R was from one of the first production batches, built in with the car-door canopy and other early production features. This Typhoon was delivered to, and served on the Fighter Interception Unit in [53] In February R was listed as being in front line service on Sqn.; by then it was fitted with a clear-view "bubble" hood, rocket rails and other late series features.[nb 11]

Carbon monoxide seepage[edit]

The first problem encountered with the Typhoon after its entry into service was the seepage of carbon monoxide fumes into the cockpit. In an attempt to alleviate this, longer exhaust stubs were fitted in November ("Mod [modification] "), and at about the same time the port (left) cockpit doors were sealed. The Pilot's Notes for the Typhoon recommended that "Unless Mod. No. has been embodied it is most important that oxygen be used at all times as a precaution against carbon monoxide poisoning."[55] Despite the modifications, the problem was never entirely solved, and the standard procedure throughout the war was for Typhoon pilots to use oxygen from engine start-up to engine shut down.[56] In addition to carbon monoxide seepage, pilots were experiencing unpleasantly high cockpit temperatures; eventually a ventilation tube helped alleviate, but did not solve the problem. In addition two small, rear opening vents were added below the port side radio hatch, just below the canopy.[nb 12][52]

Tail[edit]

A major problem, afflicting early production Typhoons in particular, was a series of structural failures leading to loss of the entire tail sections of some aircraft, mainly during high-speed dives. Eventually a combination of factors was identified, including harmonic vibration, which could quickly lead to metal fatigue, and a weak transport joint just forward of the horizontal tail unit. The loss of the tailplane of R (having only 11 hours of flight recorded) on 11 August , in the hands of an experienced test pilot (Seth-Smith), caused a major reassessment which concluded that the failure of the bracket holding the elevator mass balance bell crank linkage had allowed unrestrained flutter which led to structural failure of the fuselage at the transport joint.

Starting in September , a steel strap was fitted internally across the rear fuselage transport joint, although this was soon superseded by Mod (modification number ), in which 20 alloy "fishplates" were riveted externally across the rear fuselage transport joint, while internally some of the rear fuselage frames were strengthened. This was a permanent measure designed to stop rear fuselage structural failures and was introduced on the production line from the th aircraft; between December and March , all Typhoons without Mod were taken out of service and modified. Modified balance weight assemblies were fitted from May Finally the entire unit was replaced with a redesigned assembly from August [58]

Although these modifications reduced the numbers of Typhoons being lost due to tail assembly failure, towards the end of the Typhoon's life there were more tail failures, this time caused by a change to the undercarriage latch mechanism in late ; in high-speed flight the undercarriage fairings were pulled into the slipstream, creating an uneven airflow over the elevators and rudder resulting in tailplane and then rear fuselage structural failure.[58] In total 25 aircraft were lost and 23 pilots killed due to tail failures.[58]

Canopy[edit]

The Typhoon was first produced with forward-opening "car door" style[nb 13] cockpit doors (complete with wind-down windows), with a transparent "roof" hinged to open to the left. The first Typhoons featured a built-up metal-skinned dorsal fairing behind the pilot's armoured headrest; the mast for the radio aerial protruded through the fairing.[59] From mid- to late the solid metal aft dorsal fairing was replaced with a transparent structure (later nicknamed "The Coffin Hood"),[58] the pilot's head armour plate was modified to a triangular shape and the side cut-outs were fitted with armoured glass; the first production Typhoon to be fitted with this new structure was R. All earlier aircraft were quickly withdrawn and modified. From early a rear-view mirror was mounted in a perspex blister moulded into the later "car-door" canopy roofs. This modification was not very successful, because the mirror was subject to vibration.[60] Despite the new canopy structure, the pilot's visibility was still restricted by the heavy frames and the clutter of equipment under the rear canopy; from August , as an interim measure, pending the introduction of the new "bubble" canopy and cut-down dorsal fairing, the aerial mast and its associated bracing was removed and replaced with a whip aerial further back on the rear fuselage.[61]

Starting in January , R was used to test a new, clear, one piece sliding "bubble" canopy and its associated new windscreen structure which had slimmer frames which, together with the "cut-down" rear dorsal fairing, provided a far superior all-around field of view to the car-door type. From November all production aircraft, starting with JR, were to be so fitted.[60][62] However, the complex modifications required to the fuselage and a long lead time for new components to reach the production line meant that it took some time before the new canopy became standard. In order to have as many Typhoons of 2nd TAF fitted before "Operation Overlord" as possible, conversion kits were produced and used by Gloster, Hawker and Cunliffe-Owen to modify older Typhoons still fitted with the car-door canopy.[63][nb 14]

Long-range fighter and fighter-bomber[edit]

Early production Typhoon with 45 gallon drop tanks and unfaired cannon; the shallow gull shape of the wing can be seen in this view.

From early the wings were plumbed and adapted to carry cylindrical 45&#;imp&#;gal (&#;l; 54&#;US&#;gal) drop tanks,[nb 15] increasing the Typhoon's range from miles (1,&#;km) to up to 1, miles (1,&#;km). This enabled Typhoons to range deep into France, the Netherlands and Belgium. Some units, such as Squadron and Squadron, were able to achieve notable success in air combat and ground attack operations using these long-range Typhoons.[65]

As production continued, the Typhoon's role changed from a low-level interceptor fighter to a fighter bomber. Racks capable of carrying pound (&#;kg) bombs were fitted to the wings from October and were first used operationally by Squadron. By mid, all Typhoons off the production line were capable of carrying bombs. Bigger, solid rubber, grooved "anti-shimmy" tail wheel tyres were introduced in March on all Typhoons from the 1,st production aircraft, EK. The new tyres helped to make heavier, bomb-laden Typhoons more manageable during ground manoeuvres. With the introduction of the bomb racks, small extensions were added to the cannon shell case ejector slots. These allowed the casings to drop clear of bombs or drop tanks suspended from the wing racks.[66] Because of the vulnerability of the Typhoon's liquid-cooled engine cooling system to ground fire, some pounds (&#;kg) of armour was added, lining the sides and bottom of the cockpit and engine compartments, as well as the radiator bath.[67]

With the added weight of the bombs and armour, bigger brake discs were fitted to the main wheels. At first this only applied to "Bombphoons", but eventually all Typhoons used these brakes. After tests conducted in , it was determined that the Typhoon was capable of carrying a 1,pound (&#;kg) bomb under each wing. With the increased load, it was decided that the extra take-off performance conferred by a four-bladed propeller was an advantage. This led to the adoption of a four-bladed propeller unit (de Havilland or Rotol) from early Coinciding with the new propeller, it was also decided that the larger tailplanes of the Hawker Tempest were to be fitted when tests showed that they improved the handling characteristics of the Typhoon when carrying 1,pound (&#;kg) bombs.[62][68] Problems were experienced with oil seal leaks from the new propeller unit and a growing number of Typhoons were held in Maintenance Units (MUs) awaiting the arrival of new seals from the U.S. Some Typhoons were manufactured with the new Tempest tails and the three-bladed propeller. A modification programme was inaugurated but it took several months before a majority of operational Typhoons had the four-bladed propeller and enlarged tailplane.[69][nb 16]

In June , Hawker fitted a Typhoon with four steel "Mark I" rocket rails under each wing. Trials at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A & AEE) and Air Fighting Development Unit (AFDU) showed that the combination of the RP-3 rocket and the stable, high-speed platform of the Typhoon was promising. Carrying the eight rails and rockets, it was found that the top speed was reduced by 38&#;mph (61&#;km/h), with no adverse handling effects. As a result, the Mk I rails and RP-3s were first fitted to production aircraft of Squadron in October [72] At first attempts were made to arm Typhoons with either bombs or rockets depending on requirements but it was soon decided that squadrons would specialise. By D-Day, the 2nd TAF was able to field 11 RP ("Rockphoon") Typhoon squadrons and seven "Bombphoon" squadrons.[73]

Later in , attempts were made to increase the firepower by "double banking" rockets on each rail, enabling the Typhoon to carry 16 rockets. The problems involved in operating Typhoons from 2nd TAF airstrips meant that this was not much used, although some Typhoons did fly operationally with 12 rockets, using double-banked rockets on the inner rails.[74] When extra range was required, Typhoons could also operate carrying a drop tank and two rockets outboard of the tank under each wing. From December , aluminium "Mark III" rails, which weighed pounds (&#;kg) per set, replaced the steel Mk Is, which weighed pounds (&#;kg).[75][nb 17]

In late , Mk III IFF replaced the Mk I and the tailplane tip to fuselage Identification friend or foe (IFF) aerials were replaced by a "bayonet" aerial under the wing's centre section. A Beam Approach Beacon System (Rebecca) transponder unit was fitted in , with the associated aerial appearing under the centre section.

Once Typhoons started operating from forward landing grounds in Normandy, it was found that the dust clouds stirred up by propeller wash consisted of over 80 percent of hard, abrasive material which was damaging the Sabre engines. The sleeve valves in particular were subject to excessive wear and it was calculated that engines would last for three take-offs. As a result, a "dome deflector" was designed and manufactured at great speed by Napier, and within a week most Typhoons had been fitted with it. In operational service these mushroom-shaped air filters, which became red hot, had a propensity for being blown off the air intake at high speed whenever a Sabre engine backfired. They were soon replaced by drum-shaped filters designed by the RAE and Vokes. These had "cuckoo clock" doors in front, which swung open with the pressure changes caused by engine backfires. This standardised filter became Typhoon Mod[77]

At the end of June , a decision was taken to fit tropical air filters as standard, similar to those fitted to the three Typhoons which had been sent to North Africa in One thousand sets of the filters were to be manufactured and fitted to front line Typhoons as Mod. It was estimated that these could be fitted to all Typhoons on the production lines by the end of September. Research shows that late Typhoons starting in the RB series were fitted with the filters, as were some rebuilt aircraft from earlier production batches. Mod. appeared as a streamlined rectangular "hump", just behind the main radiator fairing and between the inner wheel doors, where the updraught carburettor intake was located.[77]

A small, elongated oval static port appeared on the rear starboard fuselage in late This was apparently used to more accurately measure the aircraft's altitude.

A late production Typhoon with full RP-3 armament, on the later aluminium Mk III rails, using a mix of SAP/HE 60 lb warheads (outermost rail and third) and the HE fragmentation head introduced in early December (2nd and 4th rail); there are no landing lights on the leading edges of the wings.[78]

One Typhoon, R, was used by Napier for trials with the more powerful Sabre IV, cooled using an annular radiator and driving a four-bladed propeller. The new engine and radiator arrangement required substantial modifications to the forward fuselage and engine bearer structures. Although a maximum speed of &#;mph (&#;km/h) was claimed by Napier, it was decided that the modifications would not be worthwhile, mainly because of the promising development of the Tempest, and because the disruption to Typhoon production would not be sufficiently outweighed by any benefit achieved.[79][80]

Sub-variants[edit]

In , one Typhoon, R was converted to a prototype night fighter (N.F. Mk. IB), fitted with A.I. (Airborne Interception, i.e., radar) equipment, a special night-flying cockpit and other modifications. Also in , five Typhoons[nb 18] were modified to "Tropical" standard by fitting of an air filter in a fairing behind the main radiator housing. Three[nb 19] underwent trials in Egypt with No. Squadron RAAF, during [26]

The Typhoon FR IB was developed in early and was used as a tactical reconnaissance fighter. In this version the port inner cannon was removed and three (one forward-facing inch (&#;mm) and two vertical five-inch) F24 cameras were carried in its place.[nb 20] Few FR IBs were built, and most served with Squadron, starting in July The aircraft was never popular with the pilots, who preferred the older Mustang Is and IAs, and the inherent engine and airframe vibrations meant that photos were invariably blurred. As a consequence of these problems, the FR IB was phased out in January

In , Hawker tendered the Hawker P "Fleet Fighter" in response to specification N/40 for a carrier-based fighter. A new centre section was to be fitted, extending the wingspan to over 45&#;ft (14&#;m), and thus increasing the wing area; the wings themselves were to be folding units, which swung and folded parallel to the fuselage, with the leading edges pointing upwards, much like the folding wings on the Grumman F6F Hellcat. The rear fuselage was to be longer and a v-style arrestor hook and associated catapult-launching gear was to be fitted. The design chosen was to result in the postwar Blackburn Firebrand design.[81]

Flight characteristics[edit]

Hawker Typhoon Mk IB of No. (NZ) Squadron in flight, in

Flight Lieutenant Ken Trott flew Typhoons with Squadron and recalled:

Rather a large aircraft shall we say, for a single-engine fighter. Terrific power. Quite something to control. I liked it from the point of view of speed and being a very stable gun platform. You could come in on a target at mph and the thing was as steady as a rock.[82]

In early March , at Tangmere, the then new Squadron Leader of (NZ) Squadron, Des Scott, flew a Typhoon for the first time:

She roared, screamed, groaned and whined, but apart from being rather heavy on the controls at high speeds she came through her tests with flying colours Applying a few degrees of flap we swung on down into the airfield approach, levelled out above the runway and softly eased down on to her two wheels, leaving her tail up until she dropped it of her own accord. We were soon back in her bay by the dispersal hut, where I turned off the petrol supply cock. After a few moments she ran herself out and with a spit, sob and weary sigh, her great three-bladed propeller came to a stop. So that was it: I was drenched in perspiration and tired out[83]

The performance limitations for speed were noted on the pilot's notes, published by the Air Ministry. Indicated airspeed for diving was set at &#;mph (&#;km/h). The Typhoon could, if needed, be flown at &#;mph (&#;km/h) with the cockpit "hood" open. Flight with undercarriage and flaps down could be made without incident, at the respective speeds of and &#;mph ( and &#;km/h). Owing to stability problems, when the aircraft was carrying bombs, the speed could not exceed &#;mph.[84]

Notes for the management of the fuel system stated that indicated airspeeds (IAS) in excess of &#;mph (&#;km/h) were not advisable when fitted with auxiliary drop tanks. Tanks were jettisoned at about &#;mph (&#;km/h), but in an emergency, a release at &#;mph (&#;km/h) was permitted. Tanks were to be ejected in straight and level flight only.[85] General flying ability was positive. The maximum climbing rate was &#;mph (&#;km/h) up to 16,&#;ft (4,&#;m) reducing speed by 3&#;mph (&#;km/h) per 1,&#;ft (&#;m) above this mark. In stability terms, the aircraft was stable "directionally" and "laterally" but slightly unstable longitudinally, except at high speed, when it was just stable. Aileron control was light and effective up to maximum speed, but at very low speed response was sluggish, particularly when carrying ordnance. The elevator control was rather light and should not be used harshly. There was a tendency to "tighten up" in a looping aircraft. If "black out" conditions were accidentally induced in steep turns or aerobatics, the control column was to be pushed forward "firmly".[86]

Stalling speeds were quite low. The typical Typhoon trait, as with most aircraft at the time, was to drop a wing sharply with flaps either up or down. The stalling speeds varied. The various loads depended on external fittings. All-up weight plus two &#;lb (&#;kg) bombs (12,&#;lb in total) with flaps up could induce a stall at 90–&#;mph. With flaps down, stall was initiated at 70–75&#;mph. Normal all-up weight (11,&#;lb) would see stall at 80–90 and 65–70&#;mph respectively. With all ammunition and nearly all fuel expended (9,&#;lb) stall occurred at 75–80 and 65–70&#;mph.[87]

Operators[edit]

Main article: List of Hawker Typhoon operators

Surviving aircraft[edit]

Hawker Typhoon MNat the RAF Museum

Only one complete Hawker Typhoon still survives: serial numberMN. Originally on display at the National Air and Space Museum (part of the Smithsonian Institution) in the United States, it was presented to the RAF Museum in Hendon, North London in commemoration of the RAF's 50th Anniversary in exchange for a Hawker Hurricane. The aircraft was on loan to the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, Canada.[88] It was briefly on show in the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight hangar at RAF Coningsby,[89] but returned to the Royal Air Force Museum London in November [90] Several other partial airframes are extant:

  • Typhoon Ib EJ, Hawker Typhoon Preservation Group], UK[91]
  • Typhoon Ib JP, Typhoon Legacy Co. Ltd., Canada, undergoing long term airworthy restoration; formerly of the Roger Marley Collection[92]
  • Typhoon Ia JR Brian Barnes Collection, UK
  • Typhoon Ib RB/G-TIFY, Hawker Typhoon Preservation Group, undergoing airworthy restoration by Airframe Assemblies on the Isle of Wight and Aircraft Restoration Company at Duxford[93]

An unidentified cockpit sections is on display at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, and another – the only known original "car door" example – is subject to a static restoration by the Jet Age Museum in Gloucester.

Hawker Typhoon replica at Memorial de la Paix, Caen

A Hawker Typhoon replica on display at the Memorial de la Paix at Caen, France, was constructed using some original components.

Memorial[edit]

On 9 June , in recognition of the aircraft and crew's role in the liberation of Normandy, a Typhoon memorial was dedicated by Major M. Roland Heudier at Noyers-Bocage, France. Also present at the ceremony were General Yves Paul Ezanno DFC and bar and Squadron Leader Denis Sweeting, both former Squadron Leaders of No. Squadron RAF.[94]

Specifications (Typhoon Mk Ib)[edit]

3-view drawing of Hawker Typhoon

Data from Mason unless otherwise stated[95]

General characteristics

  • Crew: One
  • Length: 31&#;ft &#;in (&#;m) [nb 21]
  • Wingspan: 41&#;ft 7&#;in (&#;m)
  • Height: 15&#;ft 4&#;in (&#;m) [nb 22]
  • Wing area: &#;sq&#;ft (&#;m2)
  • Airfoil:root:NACA ; tip:NACA [96]
  • Empty weight: 8,&#;lb (4,&#;kg)
  • Gross weight: 11,&#;lb (5,&#;kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 13,&#;lb (6,&#;kg) with two 1,&#;lb (&#;kg) bombs
  • Powerplant: 1 × Napier Sabre IIA, IIB or IIC H liquid-cooled sleeve-valve piston engine, 2,&#;hp (1,&#;kW)
Sabre IIB: 2,&#;hp (1,&#;kW)
Sabre IIC: 2,&#;hp (1,&#;kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: &#;mph (&#;km/h, &#;kn) at 19,&#;ft (5,&#;m) with Sabre IIB & 4-bladed propeller[nb 23]
  • Stall speed: 88&#;mph (&#;km/h, 76&#;kn)
  • Range: &#;mi (&#;km, &#;nmi) with two &#;lb (&#;kg) bombs; &#;mi (1,&#;km) "clean"; 1,&#;mi (1,&#;km) with two 45&#;imp&#;gal (&#;l; 54&#;US&#;gal) drop tanks.[65]
  • Service ceiling: 35,&#;ft (10,&#;m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,&#;ft/min (&#;m/s) F.S supercharger at 3, rpm and 14,&#;ft (4,&#;m)
  • Wing loading: &#;lb/sq&#;ft (&#;kg/m2)
  • Power/mass: &#;hp/lb (&#;kW/kg)

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 20&#;mm (&#;in) Hispano Mk II cannon
  • Rockets: 8 × RP-3 unguided air-to-ground rockets.
  • Bombs: 2 × &#;lb (&#;kg) or 2 × 1,&#;lb (&#;kg) bombs

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^The "R" Tornado prototype, which flew before that of the Typhoon, could be identified by its ventral radiator unit and slightly rounder nose profile with a carburettor intake on top of the nose and two sets of exhaust stacks on either side of the engine cowling.[10]
  2. ^The Typhoon and Tornado's forward fuselage structure was a refinement of techniques first developed by Fred Sigrist and Camm in [11]
  3. ^This was a phenomenon called compressibility and wave drag.[20]
  4. ^Although the four cannon were the preferred armament there was a shortage of the Châtelleraut cannon feed mechanism. Some Typhoon IAs were later converted to IB standard.[3]
  5. ^On 20 June , Sqn Ldr Pheloung flying EK, US-C, was hit by flak and crashed into the sea while attacking shipping.
  6. ^(NZ)Squadron started re-equipping with Typhoons in July , initially using them as night fighters alongside TurbinliteHavocs. However, the Typhoon proved to be too fast for Turbinlite duties and Sqn was quickly reassigned to the day fighter role.[28]
  7. ^The Typhoon's original bomb load of lbs was doubled and then doubled again.[32]
  8. ^A 6-inch-diameter (&#;mm), 60 pounds (27&#;kg) high explosive warhead was the main version used on Typhoons. Also used was solid 25&#;lb (11&#;kg), inch armour piercing warhead as well as a 25&#;lb (11&#;kg) mild steel (later concrete) practice head.
  9. ^The 9th USAAF claimed a further tanks
  10. ^A "Rhubarb" was a small scale attack on enemy ground targets of opportunity. Usually, these were undertaken by a section of two aircraft. Ideally, there would be a heavy cloud base at 2,–3,&#;ft (–&#;m); should fighter opposition be too heavy it would be possible to pull up into the cloud.
  11. ^R is listed as being shot down by flak on 28 February W/O F. W. Cuthbertson was killed.[54]
  12. ^ In April , F/L A. O. Moffet of the RAE Farnborough was attached to (NZ) Sqn in response to complaints about the overheated cockpits of the Typhoons. For a fortnight, "Moff" flew operationally with the unit. His tests showed that the cockpit temperatures could reach &#;°F (57&#;°C).[57]
  13. ^Another aircraft with this sort of door was the Bell P Airacobra
  14. ^It is believed that the first modified Typhoon was RDJ-S, flown by New Zealander Wing CommanderDesmond J. Scott, C/O of the Tangmere Wing from September [64]
  15. ^These same drop tanks used by the Hurricane from
  16. ^Early in its service life, the Typhoon airframe was prone to a high-frequency vibration while in flight, such that pilots reported that touching the cockpit walls was akin to receiving a mild electric shock.[70] Although not dangerous, it was uncomfortable, and a specially sprung seat was designed and fitted. With the introduction of the four-bladed propeller and larger tailplane it was found that not only was the performance and handling of the Typhoon enhanced, the vibration was much reduced.[71]
  17. ^Starting in June , new production Typhoons had the landing light in the leading edge of the port wing, although most units of 2 TAF omitted this feature and faired over the opening with a metal panel, giving the appearance that all production Typhoons were manufactured without the lights.[76]
  18. ^R, R, R, DN and EJ
  19. ^R, DN and EJ
  20. ^Pilots soon discovered that the aircraft yawed to the left when the cannon were fired because the recoil of the two cannon on the starboard wing was not properly balanced by the single cannon to port; as a result the starboard inner cannon was also removed from some aircraft.
  21. ^Late with 4-blade propeller. Early Typhoons were &#;in (38&#;mm) shorter
  22. ^Late production; early Typhoons were 14&#;ft 10&#;in (&#;m) high
  23. ^The top speed of the Typhoon was reduced by some 15&#;mph (24&#;km/h) by the non-jettisonable rocket rails. Rockets and rails reduced the speed by 38&#;mph (61&#;km/h).[75]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. –
  2. ^Thomas , p.
  3. ^ abcdefThomas and Shores , p.
  4. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. 35–
  5. ^Thomas and Shores , p.
  6. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. 23–
  7. ^ abMason , p.
  8. ^ abcdeThomas and Shores , p.
  9. ^Meekcoms and Morgan , p.
  10. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. 12–13
  11. ^Mason , p.
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  14. ^Mason , p.
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  17. ^Air Ministry /, p. 5.
  18. ^Mason , p.
  19. ^Mason , p.
  20. ^Bentley , p.
  21. ^Thomas and Shores , p.
  22. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. 18,
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  24. ^"No. ". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 May p.&#;
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  32. ^Gunston , p.
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  34. ^Thomas , p.
  35. ^Thomas , p.
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  38. ^Copp , pp. –
  39. ^Zetterling , p.
  40. ^Zetterling , pp. 38,
  41. ^http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA
  42. ^Beevor , p
  43. ^Thomas , pp. 68–
  44. ^Thomas , p.
  45. ^Hallion, Richard P. "The U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II". Air Power Over the Normandy Beaches and Beyond (Air Force History and Museums Program),
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  48. ^"Cap Arcona Wrecksite". wrecksite.eu. Retrieved 5 August
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  57. ^Wheeler , pp. 80–
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  73. ^Thomas , pp. 16, 58, 88–
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  78. ^Thomas , pp. 13–
  79. ^Thomas and Shores , pp. 20–
  80. ^"Napier Power Heritage."Archived 12 February at the Wayback Machinenapierheritage.org. Retrieved: 31 July
  81. ^Mason , p.
  82. ^Darlow , p.
  83. ^Scott , pp. 15–
  84. ^Air Ministry , p. 26 (I A and I B notes).
  85. ^Air Ministry , p. 12 (I A and I B notes).
  86. ^Air Ministry , p. 18 (I A and I B notes).
  87. ^Air Ministry , p. 19 (I A and I B notes).
  88. ^Canada Aviation and Space Museum: Exhibitions - Hawker Typhoon IB
  89. ^"Hawker Typhoon arrives at RAF Coningsby | Royal Air Force". www.raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 30 July
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  91. ^https://hawker-typhoon.com/
  92. ^https://www.typhoonlegacy.com/
  93. ^https://hawker-typhoon.com/
  94. ^"Typhoon Memorial". napierheritage.org. Retrieved: 31 July
  95. ^Mason , pp. –
  96. ^Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April

Bibliography[edit]

  • Air Ministry. Pilot's Notes for Typhoon Marks IA and IB; Sabre II or IIA engine (2nd edition). London: Crecy Publications, ISBN&#;
  • Beevor, Antony. Arnhem: The Battle for the Bridges, . London: Penguin Books, ISBN&#;
  • Bentley, Arthur L. "Typhoon (article and drawings)." Scale Models Magazine Vol. 6, No. 74, November
  • Caldwell, Donald. JG26 Luftwaffe Fighter Wing War Diary: Volume Two: –45. Mechanicsburg, PA, USA: Stackpole Books, ISBN&#;
  • Copp, T. Montgomery's Scientists: Operational Research in Northwest Europe: The Work of No. 2 Operational Research Section with 21 Amy Group June to July . Ontario, Canada: The Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies, ISBN&#;
  • Darlow, Stephen. Victory Fighters: The Veterans' Story. London: Bounty Books, ISBN&#;
  • Grey, Peter and Sebastian Cox. Air Power: Turning Points from Kittyhawk to Kosovo. London: Frank Class Publishers, ISBN&#;
  • Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft Since (3rd revised edition). London: Putnam, ISBN&#;
  • Mason, Francis K. The Hawker Typhoon and Tempest. London: Aston Publications, ISBN&#;
  • Meekcoms, K. J and E. B Morgan. The British Aircraft Specifications File. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Moore, Perry. Operation Goodwood, July A Corridor of Death. Solihull, UK: Helion & Company Ltd, ISBN&#;
  • Ramsay, Winston G. (ed). The Blitz Then and Now Volume 3: May – May . London: Battle of Britain Prints International Limited, ISBN&#;
  • Scott, Desmond. Typhoon Pilot. London: Leo Cooper, ISBN&#;
  • Shores, Christopher and Chris Thomas. Second Tactical Air Force Volume One. Spartan to Normandy, June to June . Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Shores, Christopher and Chris Thomas. Second Tactical Air Force Volume Two. Breakout to Bodenplatte, July to January . Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Shores, Christopher and Chris Thomas. Second Tactical Air Force Volume Three. From the Rhine to Victory, January to May . Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Shores, Christopher and Chris Thomas. Second Tactical Air Force Volume Four. Squadrons, Camouflage and Markings, Weapons and Tactics. Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Sortehaug, Paul. The Wild Winds, The History of Number RNZAF Fighter Squadron with the RAF. Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press, ISBN&#;
  • Thomas, Chris. Hawker Typhoon (Warpaint Series No. 5). Husborne Crawley, Bedfordshire, UK: Hall Park Books Ltd., No ISBN
  • Thomas, Chris. Typhoon Wings of 2nd TAF –45. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, ISBN&#;
  • Thomas, Chris. Typhoon and Tempest Aces of World War 2. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, ISBN&#;
  • Thomas, Chris and Christopher Shores. The Typhoon and Tempest Story. London: Arms and Armour Press, ISBN&#;
  • Zetterling, Niklas. Normandy German Military Organization, Military Power and Organizational Effectiveness. Canada: J.J. Fedorwicz Publishing Inc., ISBN&#;

Further reading[edit]

  • Badsey, Stephen. Normandy Allied Landings and Breakout (Campaign). London: Osprey Military, ISBN&#;
  • Clarke, R.M. Hawker Typhoon Portfolio. Cobham, Surrey, UK: Brooklands Books Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Darling, Kev. Hawker Typhoon, Tempest and Sea Fury. Ramsgate, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Franks, Norman L.R. Royal Air Force Losses of the Second World War. Volume 2. Operational Losses: Aircraft and crews –. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Publishing Limited, ISBN&#;
  • Franks, Norman L.R. Royal Air Force Losses of the Second World War. Volume 3. Operational Losses: Aircraft and crews – (Incorporating Air Defence Great Britain and 2nd TAF). Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Publishing Limited, ISBN&#;
  • Halliday, Hugh A. Typhoon and Tempest: the Canadian Story. Charlottesville, Virginia: Howell Press, ISBN&#;
  • Hannah, Donald. Hawker FlyPast Reference Library. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing Ltd., ISBN&#;X.
  • James, Derek N. Hawker, an Aircraft Album No. 5. New York: Arco Publishing Company, ISBN&#; (First published in the UK by Ian Allan in )
  • Mason, Francis K. "The Hawker Typhoon." Aircraft in Profile, Volume 4. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. Somerton, UK: Crecy Books, ISBN&#;
  • Reed, Arthur and Roland Beamont. Typhoon and Tempest at War. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan, ISBN&#;
  • Rimell, Ken. Through the Lens: The Typhoon at War, A Pictorial Tribute. Storrington, West Sussex, UK: Historic Military Press, ISBN&#;X.
  • Scutts, Jerry. Typhoon/Tempest in Action (Aircraft in Action series, No. ). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, ISBN&#;
  • Shores, Christopher. Ground Attack Aircraft of World War Two. London: Macdonald and Jane's, ISBN&#;
  • Thomas, Chris and Mister Kit. Hawker Typhoon(in French). Paris, France: Éditions Atlas, No ISBN.
  • Townshend Bickers, Richard. Hawker Typhoon: The Combat History. Ramsgate, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., ISBN&#;
  • Typhoon at War DVD, IWM footage.
  • Wilbeck, C.W. Sledgehammers: Strengths and Flaws of Tiger Tank Battalions in World War II. Bedford, Pennsylvania: The Aberjona Press, ISBN&#;

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawker_Typhoon
Tempest At War

History of the Hawker Tempest Mk V &#; Battle of Normandy

Hawker Tempest history

In , the British Air Force wanted to improve the performance of the Typhoon fighter aircraft, especially at very high altitudes.

The main modification is that this device is equipped with wings in the shape of an elipse which make it possible to reach the desired speed at altitude.

In November , the first model was manufactured: it was quickly called &#;Spitfire II&#;, but changed its name in August to become the &#;Tempest&#;. Its characteristics, however, remain relatively identical to the Vickers Supermarine Spitfire.

The maximum speed without WEP (War Emergency Power, methanol injection, ether and oil in the cylinder and carburetor) is between and km/h. Its speed with WEP is km/h at 15, feet.

There are unknowns about the power of the engine: it appears that in normal use, the engine reaches 2, horsepower. With WEP, the latter gets more horsepower which means 3, horsepower.

During the invasion of Normandy, which began on June 5, , the Hawker Tempest fighter planes were placed in reserve for the benefit of the Spitfires in the early days, but on June 8 the squadrons on alert were deployed over the Normandy.

Many Tempest also participate in the fight against the V-1 rockets. English fighters must shoot them before they reach their goal.

Throughout World War II, the Tempest are also used in ground attacks, and this fighter excels in this type of mission. In addition, it proves to be a very robust and resistant to enemy impact.

A few Hawker Tempest were deployed to the Middle East after the Second World War, until

Sours: https://www.dday-overlord.com/en/material/aviation/tempest

Plane ww2 typhoon

Hawker Typhoon

Specifications



Origin

United Kingdom national flag graphic
United Kingdom

Status

RETIRED
Not in Service.


Hawker Aircraft / Gloster - UK

(View other Aviaton-Related Manufacturers)

&#;Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets. &#;Interception
Ability to intercept inbound aerial threats by way of high-performance, typically speed and rate-of-climb. &#;Close-Air Support (CAS)
Developed to operate in close proximity to active ground elements by way of a broad array of air-to-ground ordnance and munitions options. &#;Intelligence-Surveillance-Reconnaissance (ISR), Scout
Surveil ground targets / target areas to assess environmental threat levels, enemy strength, or enemy movement.


Width/Span

ft
( m)

Empty Wgt

8, lb
(3, kg)

MTOW

13, lb
(6, kg)

Wgt Diff

+4, lb
(+2, kg)

(Showcased structural values pertain to the Hawker Typhoon IB production variant)

Installed: 1 x Napier Sabre II-A cylinder sleeve-valve liquid-cooled piston engine developing 2, horsepower.

Max Speed

mph
( kph | kts)

Ceiling

35, ft
(10, m | 7 mi)

Range

mi
( km | 1, nm)

Rate-of-Climb

3, ft/min
( m/min)


♦ MACH Regime (Sonic)

Sub

Trans

Super

Hyper

HiHyper

ReEntry

RANGES (MPH) Subsonic:



(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the Hawker Typhoon IB production variant. Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database. View aircraft by powerplant type)

INITIAL:
12 x mm Browning machine guns.

STANDARDIZED:
4 x 20mm Hispano cannons (two guns to a wing).

OPTIONAL:
2 x lb or lb bombs underwing.
8 x HE (High-Explosive) aerial rockets underwing.



Supported Types



Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft automatic cannon
Graphical image of aircraft aerial rockets
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition


(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)

Tornado - Prototype Model Designation
Typhoon F.Mk IA - Fitted with mm Browning machine guns.
Typhoon F.Mk IB - Fitted with 20mm Hispano cannons.
Typhoon FR.Mk IB - Tactical Reconnaissance Model
"Typhoon II" - Largely improved Typhoon model based on the Mk I; renamed Hawker Tempest and received as an "all-new" design.


Survivability  



Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.

The overall rating takes into account over 60 individual factors related to this aircraft entry.

Rating is out of a possible points.

This entry's maximum listed speed (mph).


Graph average of miles-per-hour.

NYC

  LON

LON

  PAR

PAR

  BER

BER

  MOS

MOS

  TOK

TOK

  SYD

SYD

  LAX

LAX

  NYC

Hawker Typhoon IB operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).

Max Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic

The 3 qualities we look at for a balanced aircraft design are altitude, speed, and range.

Pie graph section

Showcasing era cross-over of this aircraft design.

This entry's total production compared against the most-produced military and civilian aircraft types in history (Ilyushin IL-2 and Cessna , respectively).

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Sours: https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.php?aircraft_id=
Hawker Typhoon in Action

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