Costco business


American multinational chain of membership-only stores

Not to be confused with COSCO, Cosco (India) Limited, Cusco, or CUSCO Japan.

Costco Wholesale logo 2010-10-26.svg

Costco's logo since 1997


Company headquarters in Issaquah, Washington (since 1994)


Traded as

Nasdaq: COST
NASDAQ-100 Component
S&P 100 Component
S&P 500 Component
PredecessorPrice Club
FoundedJuly 12, 1976; 45 years ago (1976-07-12) (as Price Club)
San Diego, California, U.S.
September 15, 1983; 38 years ago (1983-09-15) (as Costco)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
FoundersJames Sinegal
Jeffrey Brotman
Sol Price
Robert Price

Issaquah, Washington



Number of locations

804[1] (2021)

Area served

New Zealand
South Korea
United Kingdom
United States

Key people

Hamilton E. James
W. Craig Jelinek
(President and CEO)
BrandsKirkland Signature
Cash & Carry
Warehouse club
Filling stations
RevenueIncreaseUS$166.76 billion[2] (2020)

Operating income

Increase US$6.023 billion [2] (2020)

Net income

Increase US$4.002 billion[2] (2020)
Total assetsIncrease US$45.40 billion[2] (2019)
Total equityIncrease US$15.24 billion[2] (2019)
MembersIncrease 105.5 million[3] (2020)

Number of employees

Increase 273,000[3] (2020)
Websitewww.costco.comEdit this at Wikidata
Costco's original logo (used until 1993, but carried by stores until 1997)

Costco Wholesale Corporation (doing business asCostco Wholesale and also known simply as Costco) is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only (needing a membership to shop there) big-boxretail stores (warehouse club).[4] As of 2020[update], Costco was the fifth largest retailer in the world,[5] and the world's largest retailer of choice and prime beef, organic foods, rotisserie chicken, and wine as of 2016[update].[6] In 2021, Costco was ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[7]

Costco's worldwide headquarters are in Issaquah, Washington, an eastern suburb of Seattle, although its Kirkland Signature house label bears the name of its former location in Kirkland. The company opened its first warehouse (the chain's term for its retail outlets) in Seattle in 1983.[8][9] Through mergers, however, Costco's corporate history dates back to 1976, when its former competitor Price Club was founded in San Diego, California.[10][11][12] As of March 2021[update], Costco has 804 warehouses worldwide:[1] 558 in the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), 103 in Canada, 39 in Mexico, 29 in the United Kingdom, 27 in Japan, 16 in South Korea, 14 in Taiwan, 13 in Australia, 3 in Spain, 1 in Iceland, 1 in France, and 1 in mainland China. Costco regularly opens new locations.[13] The company plans to open warehouses in 2022 for the first time in New Zealand,[14] and Sweden.[15]


Toronto, Ontario (Opened July 2019)

Price Club[edit]

Main article: Price Club

Costco's history began with Sol Price and his son, Robert, opening the first Price Club warehouse on July 12, 1976, on Morena Boulevard in San Diego, California. This gave birth to a new concept: a retail warehouse club. The Price family placed Price Club Warehouse #1 inside a series of old airplane hangars[11][12] previously owned by Howard Hughes; that warehouse, now known as Costco Warehouse #401, is still in operation today.[16]

Costco opens[edit]

James (Jim) Sinegal and Jeffrey H. Brotman[17] opened the first Costco warehouse in Seattle on September 15, 1983.[11] Sinegal had started in wholesale distribution by working for Sol Price at FedMart; Brotman, an attorney from an old Seattle retailing family, had also been involved in retail distribution from an early age. He began his retail involvement as a grocery bagger.[18] A second store opened in Portland in October, and a third in Spokane in December 1983.[8]

The "PriceCostco" merger[edit]

In 1993, Costco and Price Club agreed to merge operations themselves after Price declined an offer from Walmart to merge Price Club with their warehouse store chain, Sam's Club.[19] Costco's business model and size were similar to those of Price Club, which made the merger more natural for both companies.[12] The combined company took the name PriceCostco, and memberships became universal, meaning that a Price Club member could use their membership to shop at Costco and vice versa. PriceCostco boasted 206 locations generating $16 billion in annual sales.[11] PriceCostco was initially led by executives from both companies, but in 1994, the Price brothers left the company to form PriceSmart,[12][20] a warehouse club chain in Central America and the Caribbean unrelated to the current Costco.[21]

In 1997, Costco changed its name to Costco Wholesale Corporation, and all remaining Price Club locations were rebranded as Costco.[11][12]

Other company milestones[edit]

On April 26, 2012, CNBC premiered its documentary, The Costco Craze: Inside the Warehouse Giant.[22]

In 2014, Costco was the third largest retailer in the United States.[23] That year Costco announced plans to open an online store in China using Alibaba Group.[24]

Costco announced the opening of 29 new locations in 2016, the most in one year since 2007.[25][26] Span Construction, led by King Husein, has constructed almost all of Costco's buildings since 1989.[27]

On August 27, 2019, Costco opened its first Chinese location, in Shanghai. The popular attention which greeted the store's opening led to its opening day being cut short over safety concerns.[28]

Costco today[edit]

In the United States, Costco's main competitors operating membership warehouses are Sam's Club and BJ's Wholesale Club.[29] Costco employs 254,000 full and part-time employees worldwide.[30][2] In 2016, Costco had 86.7 million members.[31] This increased to 90.3 million members in 2017.[32][31] and 94.3 million in 2018.[31] In 2019, Costco had 98.5 million members.[2] In 2020, Costco had 105.5 million members.[3]

Costco was the first company to grow from zero to $3 billion in sales in under six years.[11] For the fiscal year ending on August 31, 2012, the company's sales totaled $97.062 billion, with $1.709 billion net profit.[33] As of 2019[update], Costco is ranked #14 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[34] The ACSI (The American Customer Satisfaction Index) named Costco number one in the specialty retail store industry with a score of 84 in 2014.[35]

From December 2013, Costco's board of directors was chaired by co-founder Jeffrey H. Brotman and included James Sinegal, co-founder and director, and two officers of the company: president/CEO W. Craig Jelinek and CFO Richard A. Galanti. On August 1, 2017, Jeffrey Brotman died.[36] As of August 2017[update], James Sinegal and W. Craig Jelinek remained on the board. Jim Sinegal stepped down in 2018.[31]


Map of Costco warehouses in the US (January 2021)
Red:Wholesale locations
Blue:Business center locations

As of March 2021[update], Costco had 804 warehouses worldwide:[1]

  • 558 in the United States
  • 103 in Canada
  • 39 in Mexico
  • 29 in the United Kingdom
  • 27 in Japan
  • 16 in South Korea
  • 14 in Taiwan
  • 13 in Australia
  • 3 in Spain
  • 1 in Iceland
  • 1 in France
  • 1 in the People’s Republic of China
  • 1 in New Zealand (opening in 2022)
  • 1 in Sweden (opening in 2022)

New Costco locations are opened regularly.[13] In 2022, the company plans to open warehouses for the first time in New Zealand[14] and Sweden.[15]

International locations[edit]

Aerial perspective of the Costco roof at Melbourne's Docklands store in March 2019

Warehouses outside the U.S. are similar to the company's domestic locations, featuring generally identical layout, signage, and even parking lot markings.[citation needed] Food court menus are tailored to international tastes, with meat pies on offer in Australia; poutine in Canada and France; seafood-topped pizza in Asian locations; pastor taco-topped pizzas in Mexico; clam chowder in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan; plokkfiskur in Iceland; and jacket potatoes in the UK.[37] Additionally, Costco has led a strategic initiative to enhance the merchandise mix available at international warehouses by tailoring products to local tastes, offering a selection of both American and local products.

Largest locations[edit]

In 2005, the world's largest Costco by square feet was located in Hillsboro, Oregon.[38] In 2015, Costco completed an expansion in Salt Lake City, making it the new largest Costco at 235,000 sq ft (21,800 m2).[39] In 2019, Costco opened its biggest store in Canada, in St. John's; the store is 182,000 sq ft (16,900 m2).[40]

In 2011, Costco's highest volume store was in Seoul, South Korea.[41] In 2018, Taiwan's Taichung ranked at the top in the number of members and was second in the world in sales volume, behind South Korea's Yangjae store in Seoul. Of the 13 Costco operations in Taiwan, three – Taichung, Neihu, and Chungho – ranked in the top 10 in the world in sales volume.[42]

Costco Business Centers[edit]

Costco Business Centers are warehouses similar to regular Costco warehouses, and are open to all Costco members, regardless of membership type. Their merchandise caters predominantly to enterprises, with a focus on small businesses. Business Centers do not carry most consumer items like clothing, jewelry, media, and tires, while carrying larger quantities and more options for the business products they do carry.[43] More than 70% of the items that can be acquired from a Costco Business Center cannot be found in a typical Costco store.[44] Some locations do have a food court, a gas station, or both. Unlike regular warehouses, most Costco Business Centers have a Print & Copy Center which provides printing professional services. They have large parking spaces for trucks and are capable of delivering goods to businesses in bulk quantities, with a delivery charge of $25 for orders that are below $250.[44] Costco Business Center operating hours are shorter than regular warehouses (usually opening at 7:00 am on Mondays to Saturdays and closed on Sundays), while discounts and coupons for Business Centers are issued separately from regular warehouses.[45][46]


As of March 2021[update], there are 20 Costco Business Centers in the United States, located in Orlando, Florida; Dallas, Texas; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Phoenix, Arizona; California (Commerce, Hawthorne, Hayward, North Hollywood, Sacramento, San Diego, South San Francisco, Ontario and Westminster); Denver, Colorado; Morrow, Georgia; Bedford Park, Illinois; Hackensack, New Jersey; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Washington (Lynnwood, and Fife).[47]

The first Costco Business Center outside the U.S. opened in Canada in Scarborough, Toronto in spring 2017.[48] In September 2020, the second Canadian Costco Business Centre opened in St. Hubert, Québec, near Montréal.[49]


For the fiscal year 2019, Costco reported earnings of US$3.659 billion, with an annual revenue of US$152.703 billion, an increase of 7.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Costco's shares traded at over $205 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$95.7 billion in October 2018.

Year Revenue
in mil. USD$
Net income
in mil. USD$
Price per Share
in USD$ (year end)[50]
Warehouses Employees Ref(s)
2005 52,935 1,063 49.47 433 115,000 [51]
2006 60,151 1,103 52.87 458 127,000 [52]
2007 64,400 1,083 69.76 488 127,000 [53]
2008 72,483 1,283 52.50 512 137,000 [54]
2009 71,422 1,086 59.17 527 142,000 [55]
2010 77,946 1,303 72.21 540 147,000 [56]
2011 88,915 1,462 83.32 592 164,000 [57]
2012 99,137 1,709 98.73 608 174,000 [58]
2013 105,156 2,039 119.02 634 184,000 [59]
2014 112,640 2,058 141.75 663 195,000 [60]
2015 116,199 2,377 161.50 686 205,000 [61]
2016 118,719 2,350 160.11 715 218,000 [62]
2017 129,025 2,679 186.12 741 231,000 [62]
2018 141,576 3,134 203.71 768 245,000 [31]
2019 152,703 3,659 293.92 782 254,000 [2]
2020 166,761 4,002 376.78 803 273,000 [3]

Business model[edit]

Costco is a membership only warehouse which generates a majority of its revenue from retail sales and a small percentage from membership fees. Customers must buy memberships to access the warehouse and make purchases. This is executed through the direct sourcing and efficient inventory management techniques.[63]

Costco divides its business into three segments: United States Operations, Canadian Operations, and Other International Operations. These 3 business segments are reported by revenue and operating income.[64] Of the three, the United States Operations was the largest, followed by Canadian Operations.[63]

Sales model[edit]

The company's rule is that no regular item may be marked up more than 14% over cost, and no Kirkland Signature item may be marked up more than 15% over cost.[6] The company runs very lean, with overhead costs at about 10% of revenue and profit margins at 2%.[6] Costco's annual membership fees (US$60/year for Gold Star, US$120/year for Executive as of 2019[update])[65] account for 80% of Costco's gross margin and 70% of its operating income.[66]

If Costco feels the wholesale price of any individual product is too high, they will refuse to stock the product. For example, in November 2009, Costco announced that it would stop selling Coca-Cola products, because the soft-drink maker refused to lower its wholesale prices.[67] Costco resumed selling Coca-Cola products the following month.[68][69]

Although the brand engages in visible efforts to reduce costs, the stores themselves are expensive. In 2013, Costco spent approximately $80 million on each of the new stores it opened.[70] The cost is partly driven by the cost of real estate, as each new store means that they need enough space to support a building of approximately 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) in size, a large parking lot, and often a gas station.[70]

Lighting costs are reduced on sunny days, as most Costco locations have several skylights. During the day, electronic light meters measure how much light is coming in the skylights and turn off an appropriate percentage of the interior lights. During an average sunny day, it is normal for the center section of the warehouse not to have interior lights in use.[71] The company has no public relations department and does not buy outside advertising.[6] A typical Costco warehouse carries only 3,700 distinct products, while a typical Walmart Supercenter carries approximately 140,000 products.[6]

Like many other retailers vertically integrating their food supply chains, Costco has brought in-house poultry production for their rotisserie chickens, which are a major driver of customer traffic and sales.[72][73][74] This is to allow keeping their pricing intact while maintaining a consistent quality control of its chickens as a result of annual growth of per-capita chicken consumption in the United States.[75][74]

Online shopping[edit]

Costco primarily focuses on getting members to come in to a warehouse for purchases, instead of ordering products online.[76] Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Costco's online sales increased dramatically, with more online sales growth in 2020 than the previous 5 years combined.[77]

The company opened its online shopping site at on April 17, 2001.[78] is for United States members; is for Canadian members, and other countries, such as Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan and the UK, each have their own online Costco shopping website.

Instacart offers Costco delivery in a select number of states including Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and the District of Columbia.[79] No membership is needed to order from Costco on Instacart, but Instacart charges delivery fees and the prices may not necessarily be the same as in a Costco warehouse.

Similarly, in March 2017, Costco initiated a partnership with Shipt, an online grocery delivery service. Unlike Instacart, Shipt charges its own membership fee, $99 a year or $14 a month, in exchange for free delivery on orders over $35. As of November 2018[update], Shipt offers Costco delivery in select Florida markets.[80]

In October 2017, Costco launched same-day and two-day grocery delivery options for members.[81]


Costco has a frequently changing inventory and is known for carrying products for a time, then discontinuing them or using them as seasonal products.[82] Over the years, Costco has gradually expanded its range of products and services. Initially, it preferred to sell only boxed products that could be dispensed by simply tearing the stretch wrap off a pallet.[citation needed] It now[when?] sells many other products that are more difficult to handle, such as art, books, caskets, clothing, computer software, fine wine, furniture, home appliances, home electronics, hot tubs, jewelry, perishable items (such as dairy, fresh baked goods, flowers, fresh produce, meat, seafood), solar panels, tires, and vacuum cleaners.[citation needed] Many warehouses also have gas stations, pharmacies, hearing aid centers, optometrists, eye and sunglass centers, photo processors, and tire garages.[citation needed] The produce items that require refrigeration are kept in a walk-in refrigerator, and several locations even have a walk-in refrigerator for dairy items.[citation needed]

Some locations have liquor stores, often kept separate from the main warehouse in order to comply with liquor license restrictions. In some states (such as Texas), the liquor store must be owned and operated by a separate company with separate employees.[83] In 2006, Costco lost a lawsuit against the state of Washington in which it was seeking to purchase wine directly from the producer, bypassing the state retail monopoly.[84] In Australia, Costco has to comply with regulations set by each state they choose to trade in;[85] their first store in the Australian state of Victoria benefits from some of the most liberal alcohol licensing laws in that country, with retailers permitted to sell alcohol on shelves within the store, in a manner similar to most European countries.[citation needed] In the Canadian province of Quebec, beer and wine are sold within the stores from pallets.[citation needed]

Kirkland Signature[edit]

Kirkland Signature logo

"Kirkland Signature" is Costco's private label. It is sold by Costco at their website and warehouses, and is trademarked by the company. Costco introduced Kirkland Signature as its private label in 1992, deriving the name from the location of Costco's then corporate headquarters, Kirkland, Washington (their headquarters later moved, roughly 12 miles (19 km), to Issaquah, Washington).[86] It accounts for almost a third of all Costco sales and is growing faster than Costco sales.[87] Many Kirkland Signature products are produced by the same manufacturers as their respective name brands. For example, Kirkland branded bottled water is produced by private label bottler Niagara Bottling,[88] and some of Kirkland's branded coffee is roasted by Starbucks.[89]

The idea for the private label was to provide the appearance of brand name quality products at discounted prices.[90] To counteract the consumer confidence problem common in store-name branding, Kirkland Signature occasionally employs co-branding. According to Costco, while consumers may be wary of same-store branding, they are less likely to be wary of brands that they are familiar with and trust.[91]


Costco Connection[edit]

Costco Connection is a magazine sent free to the Costco executive members; it can also be accessed online by anyone, free of charge.[92] Until the end of 2018, the magazine was known as The Costco Connection. But with the January/February 2019 issue, "the", the definite article was dropped from the name and now the magazine is known as just Costco Connection.

The magazine was established in 1987 as a newsprint publication and converted to a magazine in 1997.[93] It features articles which regularly tie into the corporation along with business, celebrity features, cooking, entertaining, health, home improvement, and social articles, as well as coupons and ads. MediaPost reports: "While about 90% of the magazine's advertising is co-op, increasingly national advertisers such as Procter & Gamble are buying space, notes Roeglin -- presumably because of the pub's gargantuan reach and the data it has on its subscribers (whose average household income is $156,000 a year). 'We see about 56% of our subscribers a month buy something at one of our stores based on something they've read in the magazine,' says Roeglin."[94] The magazine is one of the largest-circulation print monthly in the United States[94] and presently is the third in circulation figures in the United States after AARP The Magazine and AARP Bulletin.

Other publications[edit]

Costco also publishes the Costco Household Almanac, an annual edition started in 2007. The 200+ pages almanac carries a lot of helpful tips to Costco readers and carries ads from suppliers. Costco also publishes a cookbook series.


Concierge service[edit]

Costco offers a free "concierge" service to members who purchase electronics, to help answer questions regarding setup and use and avoid potential returns due to not understanding how to use the products.[95]

Costco Auto Program[edit]

In 2020, Costco Auto Program Approved Dealerships sold nearly 700,000 vehicles to Costco members.[96] Costco Auto Program regularly teams up with various automobile manufacturers to offer special deals to customers, e.g., Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac, Audi, Volvo, Mercedes Benz, Honda, Subaru and many more during the past five years.[97][98] MSN reports, Costco members saved an average of $1,100 to $1,200 off the average transaction price for their vehicle in their local market.[99] says it's simple to use Costco Auto Program. All you have to do is go to the Costco Auto Program webpage and you can browse the available vehicles, calculate monthly payments, and read reviews. You can also call the company’s customer-service line to have an employee walk you through the process over the phone. There are a variety of vehicle segments, including sedans, sports cars, SUVs, trucks, and crossovers.[100]

Once you provide your contact info and Costco membership number, you can go to participating dealership and you can buy or lease the vehicle with the Costco discount.[100]

In addition, members are also able to get a 15% discount on parts, service, and accessories at participating service centers.[100]

Costco Auto and Home Insurance[edit]

Costco has an agreement with CONNECT, powered by American Family Insurance, for auto insurance, home insurance and umbrella insurance.[101]

Costco business services[edit]

On March 9, 2005, NOVA Information Systems (NOVA) partnered with Costco to market and support payment processing services to Costco Canada's Business Executive Members.[102]

Costco acts as an investment broker and travel agent.</ref>

Costco photo services[edit]

Costco Photo Center is a multi-functional photography printing service offering photo items through its website, The website provides free unlimited digital file storage with a current membership. Prior to February 14, 2021, in-store photo centers offered many services such as same day photo printing (on select sizes/material) and online order pickup. In-store service/pickup is no longer offered, as all in-store photo centers closed permanently on February 14, 2021.

In December 2005, Costco signed an agreement with PhotoChannel Networks Inc., whereby Costco could deploy the PNI Digital Media Platform to offer online photo printing for Costco members through the website.[103]

Prior to May or June 2010, Costco had an agreement with for custom book and calendar publishing.[citation needed] Photo-books and calendars are now processed through multiple external vendors.[citation needed] Canvases are processed and printed by Your Photo on Canvas (, a Costco exclusive vendor.

On July 17, 2015, Costco disabled their online photo site.[104] In common with other retailers,[105] there is currently[when?] no confirmation about whether hackers had stolen Costco customers' photographs or data. As of August 1, 2015[update], Costco was estimating the website might return in mid-August, after a four-week outage.[106]

On January 13, 2021, Costco announced that it would permanently be closing the Photo Centers in all its locations by February 14, 2021.[107]

On February 14, 2021, all Photo Centers permanently closed for in-store printing and store-pickup service.[107] A majority of services are still available online as ship to home/business products. Notable in store services that are no longer offered include Passport photos, ink refills, and an externally contracted photo restoration service.[citation needed]

Costco Optical[edit]

Costco Optical ranks as the fifth-largest optical company in the US, as of 2015[update].[108]Optometrists working at Costco locations will see patients without Costco memberships,[109] although a membership is required to fill a prescription at the optical department.[110]

Costco Travel[edit]

Costco Travel is a wholly owned subsidiary of Costco Wholesale and offers leisure travel to Costco members of the United States and Canada.[111] The program was established in 2000 as a service to Costco members. Costco Travel's offices are located in Issaquah, Washington, adjacent to Costco's corporate headquarters. Costco Travel employs over 700 travel professionals, all of them Costco employees.[citation needed]

The program offers vacation packages to the Caribbean, Europe, Florida, Hawaii, Las Vegas, Mexico, and the South Pacific.[112] Other products include car rentals, cruises, guided vacations, and theme park packages. Select products feature additional benefits for Costco Executive Members.[citation needed]

The program is marketed directly to Costco members through various Costco avenues, including the Travel Guide to Savings (found in all U.S. Costco warehouses) and in the Travel section of[citation needed]

Food service[edit]

If you raise the [price of the] effing hot dog, I will kill you.

Jim Sinegal to Craig Jelenik, when Jelenik suggested increasing the price of the hot dog.[113]

Most, if not all, Costco locations have a food court.[114] They can be indoors or outdoors,[115] but the menu is essentially the same: hot dog with drink (one of the most popular items), pizza, frozen yogurt/ice cream, Pepsico beverages, baked items, and sandwiches.[116] Sometimes, items are added to the menu seasonally. Costco offers a quarter-pound 100% beef hot dog and 20 US fluid ounces (590 ml) drink (with refills) for US$1.50, the same price since 1985. Some US locations also offer Polish sausage or bratwurst in addition to hot dogs, at the same $1.50 price.[117][118][119] In Australia, the hot dog is made of pork and is sold with a large soda for AUD$1.99. In Canada, the price for a hot dog and soda with refills is C$1.50.[120] In Mexico, the hot dog is made of 100% beef and includes a drink (with refills) for MXN$35. In the UK, the hot dog is also made from beef and customers also get a drink (with refills) for £1.50. Costco sold more than 137 million quarter-pound (113 g) hot dogs in its food courts in 2017.[119] In Taiwan and Japan, the hot dog is made of pork as well.[121]

As of January 2021, cheese or pepperoni pizza, chicken bakes, ice cream (vanilla), ice cream sundae (vanilla, with very berry or chocolate sauce toppings), fruit smoothies, latte freeze (without chocolate), mocha freeze (with chocolate), and twisted churros (in select stores) are offered at all United States locations. Some food court items are only available in certain countries. For example, the bulgogi bake and mango boba tea are only available in Australia, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan;[122]poutine is only available in Canada. There are, however, temporary menu items available exclusively in several countries, like the pastor taco-topped pizzas in Mexico.[123][124] The nutrition data for the Costco Food Court items is posted online and in store.

Past menu items include veggie and combo pizza, frozen yogurt (chocolate, vanilla, or swirl), beef bake, turkey provolone sandwiches, chicken Caesar salads, beef brisket sandwiches, organic beef-based cheeseburgers, beef chili with beans, and in some locations, gelato.

Original Item Replacement Item
Veggie/Combo Pizza No Longer Offered (this includes the discontinuation of the "Italian Sausage" pizza topping as well)
Frozen YogurtVanilla Ice Cream (with addition of chocolate sauce sundae)
Turkey Provolone No Longer Offered
Twisted Churro Replaced with dual-flavor churro in late 2020/early 2021, name remained same
Chicken Caesar Salad No Longer Offered
Chicken Bake Replaced with factory-made item of same name, no longer hand-made in store (at most locations)
Diced Onion (topping) No Longer Offered
Sauerkraut (topping) No Longer Offered
Deli Mustard (condiment) No Longer Offered
Relish (condiment) Offered in select locations, expected to resume at all locations (no time period for return)

Due to slow sales, in 2009, the pretzel was replaced by the churro.[125] In April 2013, Pepsi replaced all Coca-Cola fountain drinks at U.S. locations because Coke had raised its prices; this helped keep the hot dog combo with soda at its original US$1.50 price.[126]

In select Costco food courts, Costco was selling cheeseburgers for a limited time to experiment sales. The cheeseburger was not successful, and never spread to more than a few locations.[127][needs update]

In early 2020 (due to the Coronavirus outbreak), many locations suspended all food court operations within the warehouse, opening them up weeks later to a limited take-out only menu and replacing fountain sodas with canned beverages. Many locations have had their seating area removed.[128][129] As of January 2021, all United States locations are open for partial service (with a changed menu). Seating is available in select locations.

Costco credit card[edit]

On April 1, 2016, in US, Citigroup became the exclusive issuer of Costco's branded credit cards. Prior to that, Costco credit cards had been issued by American Express since 2001, and Costco accepted only American Express cards for credit transactions. After the switch of its co-branded cards to Citi, Costco ceased accepting AmEx and began accepting Visa. AmEx cited the reason for the split that Costco was asking for lower transaction fees than AmEx was willing to grant.[130][131][132] In Canada, Costco ended its AmEx relationship in 2014, and starting in 2015,[133] it partnered with Capital One Mastercard for branded credit cards.[134] In 2020, Capital One announced it would be ending the partnership in late 2021.[135] Costco branded credit cards from both issuers also serve as alternate Costco membership cards, with a customized reverse side containing membership info.[136]

Costco Audiobook App[edit]

In March 2021, Costco started selling audiobooks and launched a corresponding iOS and Android app to listen to purchases.[137] The app is free, however the books are exclusive to Costco members. The retailer sells audiobooks in bundles grouped by genre or author, with prices ranging from $5 to $50. Audiobooks are currently only available at U.S. locations.[138]

Labor relations[edit]

Employee rights[edit]

Ambox current red Asia Australia.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2020)

While some former Price Club locations in California and the northeastern United States are staffed by Teamsters,[139] the majority of Costco locations are not unionized, although there seemed to be a move in 2012 to unionize some locations in Canada.[140] The Teamsters claim that over 15,000 Costco employees are union members.[141] The non-union locations have revisions to their Costco Employee Agreement every three years concurrent with union contract ratifications in locations with collective bargaining agreements. The Employee Agreement sets forth such things as benefits, wages, disciplinary procedures, paid holidays, bonuses, and seniority. The Employee Agreement is subject to change by Costco at any time and offers no absolute protection to the workers. As of March 2021[update], non-supervisory hourly wages ranged from $16.00 to $27.75 in the U.S., $16.00 to $28.70 in Canada, and £9.75 to £13.90 in the United Kingdom. In the U.S. as of 2005[update], eighty-five percent of Costco's workers had health insurance, compared with less than fifty percent at Walmart and Target.[142] Health benefits include coverage through Aetna, remote primary care through Teladoc, second opinions and clinical navigation by Grand Rounds, and wellness coaching by Omada.[citation needed]

In February 2021, Costco announced that it would be raising the starting rate for its hourly store workers in the United States to $16 an hour. Costco has been actively raising their minimum wage starting with $14 during 2018, and into $15 during 2019. They further add that 20% of their hourly employees will be subject to the minimum wage change.[143]


Product-demonstration (e.g., food samples) employees work for an independent company. In the western U.S., the company is called Warehouse Demo Services, Kirkland, Washington.[144] Costco also uses Club Demonstration Services (CDS), based in San Diego, California.[145] Demonstration employees receive a pay and benefit package that is less than that of Costco employees. As of August 1, 2017[update], demonstrations/samples are provided by CDS in Canada.[146]

Public health[edit]

Following the COVID-19 outbreak, the first Costco store in Perth, Australia, unexpectedly opened on March 19, 2020, without an opening ceremony and earlier than its planned time of 8:00AM due to high demand, especially for toilet paper products, to ease panic buying in mainstream supermarkets in Australia, although toilet paper was limited to only one per transaction. Carts and other objects were cleaned regularly to minimize the risk of contracting the virus.[citation needed]

As of March 6, 2020, Costco contractor CDS has temporarily stopped providing free food samples in several Costco stores globally amid public health concerns regarding COVID-19.[147]

On December 23, 2020, a Costco store in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, was forced to temporarily close after the store ignored restrictions on store capacity. The following day the entire state was put on Red alert following a sharp increase in COVID-19 infections in the state; Cuernavaca was the municipality most severely effected.[148]

Discontinued concepts[edit]

Costco Home[edit]

The first Costco Home warehouse opened in 1983, and was rebuilt / expanded in 2002, in Seattle.[149] The warehouse's concept was to combine the value, setting and members-only elements of Costco's warehouse clubs with the product array one would find at an upscale home store, such as Fortunoff or Crate & Barrel. The Costco Home warehouses sold furniture, housewares, kitchen products and accessories from higher-end brands such as Lexington, Ralph Lauren and Waterford[150] in a warehouse-club setting. Costco claimed that, similar to its main warehouses, it accepted lower margins in return for greater volume with minimal overhead.

Over time, the concept was adjusted to include home electronics, some major appliances, office furniture, and a large selection of outdoor furniture and window treatments. Costco also partners with Glentel subsidiary WIRELESS etc. to sell mobile phones and plans in Canada and Wireless Advocates in the US.[citation needed]

On April 2, 2009, the company announced that it would be abandoning its Costco Home concept, closing the two existing stores in Kirkland, Washington and Tempe, Arizona on July 3, 2009, and abandoning plans for a third store on the West Coast.[151] The company cited cutbacks in consumer spending on home products and its interest in focusing on its core business as the main reasons.


In 2010, Mercy for Animals conducted an undercover investigation at Buckeye Veal Farm, a veal supplier to Costco.[152] Immediately following the investigative release, Costco adopted a policy against purchasing veal from producers that use the crate-and-chain production method.[153] The case prompted Ohio lawmakers to vote in favor of a veal crate phase-out in the state.[154]

In 2012, Mercy for Animals conducted another undercover investigation of a pork supplier to major retailers such as Costco, Walmart, Safeway, Kroger, and Kmart.[155] Before the public release of the investigation, Costco announced they would begin requiring their pork suppliers to phase out gestation crates.[156][157]

In 2014, The Guardian reported that Costco is a client of Charoen Pokphand Foods. Over six months, The Guardian traced down a supply chain from slave ships in Asian waters to leading producers and retailers. Costco has published a statement saying it has had a supplier code of conduct since 1999 which does not allow this practice, and that independent auditors check for violations regularly.[158][159][160][161]

In 2015, The Humane Society of the United States conducted an undercover investigation at an egg supplier to Costco.[162] An undercover worker at Hillandale Farms, a major egg supplier to Costco, filmed conditions in which egg-laying hens lived in tiny, wire cages.[163] Following the investigations, several celebrities including Brad Pitt and Ryan Gosling publicly wrote to Costco to address this issue.[164] Following efforts by animal protection nonprofits including The Humane League,[165] Costco released an updated commitment to source exclusively cage-free eggs in its operations.[166]

In 2016, a follow up to Costco's shift to cage-free eggs by animal rights group Direct Action Everywhere (DxE) reported cannibalism and high mortality at a cage-free Costco egg supplier.[167][168] Costco denied the allegations, but the video sparked a discussion about animal welfare problems continuing to exist at cage-free egg farms.[167] Writing in The Huffington Post, DxE co-founder Wayne Hsiung argued that the new investigation, rather than suggesting that Costco should keep birds in cages, indicated that hens should have the right not to be raised for food or kept on farms at all.[169]

In August 2017, a federal judge ordered a "deceptive" Costco to pay Tiffany & Co. $19.4 million for misleading consumers into thinking they could buy legitimate Tiffany merchandise at warehouse club prices.[170][171]

Costco was criticised in 2019 by the Natural Resources Defense Council and Sumofus for using virgin Canadian boreal forest to make its toilet paper. NRDC says that over the last twenty years, 28 million acres of Canadian boreal forest have been cut down to make toilet paper.[172][173]

In September 2020, CBS News reported that Costco has stopped selling Palmetto Cheese after the owner of the pimento cheese brand called Black Lives Matter a "terror organization." Costco posted a note to the item in their Myrtle Beach location indicating that the item will not be reordered, and over 120 Costco's throughout the US will no longer be carrying the item.[174]

In October 2020, Costco dropped Chaokoh coconut milk over the allegations of forced monkey labor. PETA accused the manufacturer, Theppadungporn Coconut Co., of using forced monkey labor, finding cruelty to monkeys at their farms and facilities. Ken Kimble, Costco's Vice President of Corporate Food and Sundries, stated Costco has launched an investigation regarding the issue and have ceased purchasing from the supplier/owner of the brand Chaokoh condemning the use of Monkey labor. Kimble also stated that Costco will continue to monitor the implementation of the harvest policies and once satisfied will resume purchasing.[175]

In December 2020, Costco announced plans to disuse caged eggs throughout its operations worldwide.[176] It became the first US retailer to issue a global policy on the confinement of animals in its supply chain.[177] Josh Dahmen, Costco financial planning and investor relations director also said that "We are in the process of making that transition to cage-free eggs. We will continue to increase the percentage over time, with a goal of eventually getting to 100%."[178]

See also[edit]


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Intermedia Unite® is a powerful communications solution that integrates phone, video conferencing, chat, email, file sharing and more, making it easy for employees to:

Keep teams united, engaged, and productive

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Get the word out with live, virtual events

Members Get Special Pricing

Special PricingStarting at $19.99 user/month

Exchange Email for Each User Activated

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Work from Anywhere, at Anytime with Intermedia Unite






See why our Cloud Communications platform is the right choice for your business.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is a cloud-based phone system?

A “cloud-based” phone system means that the main phone system infrastructure is located in redundant, secure datacenters and is delivered to your business via a high-speed internet connection. This eliminates the need for a hefty capital investment and robust IT resources to set up and manage your phone system, saving your business money on your phone bill.

As a Costco member, what special benefits do I receive from Intermedia?

As a Costco member, you receive additional value from Intermedia. This includes special, member-only pricing, the addition of Exchange Email and a Toll Free Number with 200 minutes per month and additional discounts on hardware. Members also receive one free business phone for each Intermedia user account with one year paid service.

Can I have phones at multiple/different addresses?

Yes, with Intermedia, you can have phones at any address (providing we offer service at that location). So, you can have 5 phones at the main office, 2 phones in the warehouse down the street and one phone at the sales person's home office. All of the phones work together as if they were one phone system.

How long does it take to get the phones once I place my order?

Intermedia will customize and ship your system right to your business. Our standard shipping utilizes UPS ground shipping that can take 3 to 5 days, so typically orders are received about 7 business days from ordering. Overnight shipping is optionally available.

What does Unite provide besides phone service?

Intermedia Unite goes where you go, delivering a seamless communication experience oriented around your company needs and employee workstyle. Unite adds powerful collaboration tools to its already feature-rich, highly reliable business phone service, with desktop and mobile screen sharing, video conferencing and secure, one-click file sharing.

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Costco Anywhere Visa® Business Card By Citi 2021 Review

Costco Anywhere Visa® Business Card by Citi* vs. Costco Anywhere Visa® Card by Citi*

The business version of the Costco card is nearly identical to the personal Costco Anywhere Visa. They offer the same rewards structure and redemption limitations. The main difference is that the personal version of the card allows balance transfers and the business card does not. However, at a 3% fee, there are better options for cards offering balance transfers.

As you determine which version of the card is a better fit for you, the main factor is likely whether you anticipate charging personal or business expenses to the card since keeping expenses separate can be important for tax and accounting purposes.

Opening a business card can be crucial toward building small business credit, making it a better choice if all else is equal. Strengthening your business score can eventually lead to loan access or more favorable payment terms with suppliers or merchants. Business cards can also come with higher credit limits, since businesses may need more spending power for inventory or materials.

Costco Anywhere Visa® Business Card by Citi* vs. Delta SkyMiles® Reserve Business American Express Card – Rates & Fees

What if you could earn four points per dollar in two categories of your choice instead of just gas? That’s exactly what the American Express® Business Gold Card offers. Cardholders earn 4 Membership Rewards points per dollar spent in their two highest select spending categories each billing cycle with options like gas, travel, restaurants, shipping and more. Since categories reset each statement, you’ll always earn the most bang for your buck. Other purchases earn 1 point per dollar. The 4 points per dollar benefit applies to the first $150,000 in combined purchases from these 2 categories each calendar year.

American Express Membership Rewards are also more flexible than Costco rewards. They can be redeemed at the time of your choosing rather than once per year and never expire. They can be redeemed for cash, merchandise or transferred to travel partners.

You’ll only earn 1 point per dollar spent at warehouse clubs though, and, in fact, American Express isn’t even accepted at Costco. If you make large purchases there, you may be better off with the Costco Anywhere Visa. Additionally, the card comes with a hefty $0 annual fee (Terms apply. See rates and fees). Do the math to see if your potential rewards are still worthwhile after accounting for the fee.

Costco Anywhere Visa® Business Card by Citi* vs. Amazon Business Prime American Express Card*

If you’re not loyal to Costco, the Amazon Business Prime American Express card offers a similar substitute. It offers 5% cash back on your first $120,000 in Amazon purchases each year (then 1%). The 5% earning rate extends to, Amazon Web Services, Amazon Go and Whole Foods divisions. Cardholders will also have the option to forego the 5% earning rate in exchange for special financing options. Between all of those options, many small businesses will be able to access anything they need.

The Amazon Business Prime card also offers 2% cash back at U.S. restaurants, U.S. gas stations and U.S. wireless phone services and 1% cash back on all other purchases. The Costco card beats it on restaurants and gas (and 3% on travel), so the better card depends on which categories you spend in. Both cards require no annual fee as long as you’re a member of their respective programs.

There’s certainly more flexibility with the Amazon Business Prime card, though. Rewards can be redeemed at any point in time with no minimum cashout threshold. If you choose to cancel your Business Prime membership, you won’t need to forfeit the rewards. Instead, your card will be downgraded to the Amazon Business American Express which earns rewards at a lower rate.


How Costco Became the Anti-Wal-Mart

ISSAQUAH, Wash. - JIM SINEGAL, the chief executive of Costco Wholesale, the nation's fifth-largest retailer, had all the enthusiasm of an 8-year-old in a candy store as he tore open the container of one of his favorite new products: granola snack mix. "You got to try this; it's delicious," he said. "And just $9.99 for 38 ounces."

Some 60 feet away, inside Costco's cavernous warehouse store here in the company's hometown, Mr. Sinegal became positively exuberant about the 87-inch-long Natuzzi brown leather sofas. "This is just $799.99," he said. "It's terrific quality. Most other places you'd have to pay $1,500, even $2,000."

But the pièce de résistance, the item he most wanted to crow about, was Costco's private-label pinpoint cotton dress shirts. "Look, these are just $12.99," he said, while lifting a crisp blue button-down. "At Nordstrom or Macy's, this is a $45, $50 shirt."

Combining high quality with stunningly low prices, the shirts appeal to upscale customers -- and epitomize why some retail analysts say Mr. Sinegal just might be America's shrewdest merchant since Sam Walton.

But not everyone is happy with Costco's business strategy. Some Wall Street analysts assert that Mr. Sinegal is overly generous not only to Costco's customers but to its workers as well.

Costco's average pay, for example, is $17 an hour, 42 percent higher than its fiercest rival, Sam's Club. And Costco's health plan makes those at many other retailers look Scroogish. One analyst, Bill Dreher of Deutsche Bank, complained last year that at Costco "it's better to be an employee or a customer than a shareholder."

Mr. Sinegal begs to differ. He rejects Wall Street's assumption that to succeed in discount retailing, companies must pay poorly and skimp on benefits, or must ratchet up prices to meet Wall Street's profit demands.

Good wages and benefits are why Costco has extremely low rates of turnover and theft by employees, he said. And Costco's customers, who are more affluent than other warehouse store shoppers, stay loyal because they like that low prices do not come at the workers' expense. "This is not altruistic," he said. "This is good business."

He also dismisses calls to increase Costco's product markups. Mr. Sinegal, who has been in the retailing business for more than a half-century, said that heeding Wall Street's advice to raise some prices would bring Costco's downfall.

"When I started, Sears, Roebuck was the Costco of the country, but they allowed someone else to come in under them," he said. "We don't want to be one of the casualties. We don't want to turn around and say, 'We got so fancy we've raised our prices,' and all of a sudden a new competitor comes in and beats our prices."

At Costco, one of Mr. Sinegal's cardinal rules is that no branded item can be marked up by more than 14 percent, and no private-label item by more than 15 percent. In contrast, supermarkets generally mark up merchandise by 25 percent, and department stores by 50 percent or more.

"They could probably get more money for a lot of items they sell," said Ed Weller, a retailing analyst at ThinkEquity.

But Mr. Sinegal warned that if Costco increased markups to 16 or 18 percent, the company might slip down a dangerous slope and lose discipline in minimizing costs and prices.

Mr. Sinegal, whose father was a coal miner and steelworker, gave a simple explanation. "On Wall Street, they're in the business of making money between now and next Thursday," he said. "I don't say that with any bitterness, but we can't take that view. We want to build a company that will still be here 50 and 60 years from now."

IF shareholders mind Mr. Sinegal's philosophy, it is not obvious: Costco's stock price has risen more than 10 percent in the last 12 months, while Wal-Mart's has slipped 5 percent. Costco shares sell for almost 23 times expected earnings; at Wal-Mart the multiple is about 19.Mr. Dreher said Costco's share price was so high because so many people love the company. "It's a cult stock," he said.

Emme Kozloff, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Company, faulted Mr. Sinegal as being too generous to employees, noting that when analysts complained that Costco's workers were paying just 4 percent toward their health costs, he raised that percentage only to 8 percent, when the retail average is 25 percent.

"He has been too benevolent," she said. "He's right that a happy employee is a productive long-term employee, but he could force employees to pick up a little more of the burden."

Mr. Sinegal says he pays attention to analysts' advice because it enforces a healthy discipline, but he has largely shunned Wall Street pressure to be less generous to his workers.

"When Jim talks to us about setting wages and benefits, he doesn't want us to be better than everyone else, he wants us to be demonstrably better," said John Matthews, Costco's senior vice president for human resources.

With his ferocious attention to detail and price, Mr. Sinegal has made Costco the nation's leading warehouse retailer, with about half of the market, compared with 40 percent for the No.2, Sam's Club. But Sam's is not a typical runner-up: it is part of the Wal-Mart empire, which, with $288 billion in sales last year, dwarfs Costco.

But it is the customer, more than the competition, that keeps Mr. Sinegal's attention. "We're very good merchants, and we offer value," he said. "The traditional retailer will say: 'I'm selling this for $10. I wonder whether I can get $10.50 or $11.' We say: 'We're selling it for $9. How do we get it down to $8?' We understand that our members don't come and shop with us because of the fancy window displays or the Santa Claus or the piano player. They come and shop with us because we offer great values."

Costco was founded with a single store in Seattle in 1983; it now has 457 stores, mostly in the United States, but also in Canada, Britain, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan. Wal-Mart, by contrast, had 642 Sam's Clubs in the United States and abroad as of Jan. 31.Costco's profit rose 22 percent last year, to $882 million, on sales of $47.1 billion. In the United States, its stores average $121 million in sales annually, far more than the $70 million for Sam's Clubs. And the average household income of Costco customers is $74,000 -- with 31 percent earning over $100,000.

One reason the company has risen to the top and stayed there is that Mr. Sinegal relentlessly refines his model of the warehouse store -- the bare-bones, cement-floor retailing space where shoppers pay a membership fee to choose from a limited number of products in large quantities at deep discounts. Costco has 44.6 million members, with households paying $45 a year and small businesses paying $100.

A typical Costco store stocks 4,000 types of items, including perhaps just four toothpaste brands, while a Wal-Mart typically stocks more than 100,000 types of items and may carry 60 sizes and brands of toothpastes. Narrowing the number of options increases the sales volume of each, allowing Costco to squeeze deeper and deeper bulk discounts from suppliers.

"He's a zealot on low prices," Ms. Kozloff said. "He's very reticent about finagling with his model."

Despite Costco's impressive record, Mr. Sinegal's salary is just $350,000, although he also received a $200,000 bonus last year. That puts him at less than 10 percent of many other chief executives, though Costco ranks 29th in revenue among all American companies.

"I've been very well rewarded," said Mr. Sinegal, who is worth more than $150 million thanks to his Costco stock holdings. "I just think that if you're going to try to run an organization that's very cost-conscious, then you can't have those disparities. Having an individual who is making 100 or 200 or 300 times more than the average person working on the floor is wrong."

There is little love lost between Wal-Mart and Costco. Wal-Mart, for example, boasts that its Sam's Club division has the lowest prices of any retailer. Mr. Sinegal emphatically dismissed that assertion with a one-word barnyard epithet. Sam's might make the case that its ketchup is cheaper than Costco's, he said, "but you can't compare Hunt's ketchup with Heinz ketchup."

Still, Costco is feeling the heat from Sam's Club. When Sam's began to pare prices aggressively several years ago, Costco had to shave its prices -- and its already thin profit margins -- ever further.

"Sam's Club has dramatically improved its operation and improved the quality of their merchandise," said Mr. Dreher, the Deutsche Bank analyst. "Using their buying power together with Wal-Mart's, it forces Costco to be very sharp on their prices."

Mr. Sinegal's elbows can be sharp as well. As most suppliers well know, his gruff charm is not what lets him sell goods at rock-bottom prices -- it's his fearsome toughness, which he rarely shows in public. He often warns suppliers not to offer other retailers lower prices than Costco gets.

When a frozen-food supplier mistakenly sent Costco an invoice meant for Wal-Mart, he discovered that Wal-Mart was getting a better price. "We have not brought that supplier back," Mr. Sinegal said.

He has to be flinty, he said, because the competition is so fierce. "This is not the Little Sisters of the Poor," he said. "We have to be competitive in the toughest marketplace in the world against the biggest competitor in the world. We cannot afford to be timid."

Nor can he afford to let personal relationships get in his way. Tim Rose, Costco's senior vice president for food merchandising, recalled a time when Starbucks did not pass along savings from a drop in coffee bean prices. Though he is a friend of the Starbucks chairman, Howard Schultz, Mr. Sinegal warned he would remove Starbucks coffee from his stores unless it cut its prices.

Starbucks relented.

"Howard said, 'Who do you think you are? The price police?"' Mr. Rose recalled, adding that Mr. Sinegal replied emphatically that he was.

If Mr. Sinegal feels proprietary about warehouse stores, it is for good reason. He was present at the birth of the concept, in 1954. He was 18, a student at San Diego Community College, when a friend asked him to help unload mattresses for a month-old discount store called Fed-Mart.

What he thought would be a one-day job became a career. He rose to executive vice president for merchandising and became a protégé of Fed-Mart's chairman, Sol Price, who is credited with inventing the idea of high-volume warehouse stores that sell a limited number of products.

Mr. Price sold Fed-Mart to a German retailer in 1975 and was fired soon after. Mr. Sinegal then left and helped Mr. Price start a new warehouse company, Price Club. Its huge success led others to enter the business: Wal-Mart started Sam's Club, Zayre's started BJ's Wholesale Club and a Seattle entrepreneur tapped Mr. Sinegal to help him found Costco.

Costco has used Mr. Price's formula: sell a limited number of items, keep costs down, rely on high volume, pay workers well, have customers buy memberships and aim for upscale shoppers, especially small-business owners. In addition, don't advertise -- that saves 2 percent a year in costs. Costco and Price Club merged in 1993.

"Jim has done a very good job in balancing the interests of the shareholders, the employees, the customers and the managers," said Mr. Price, now 89 and retired. "Most companies tilt too much one way or the other."

Mr. Sinegal, who is 69 but looks a decade younger, also delights in not tilting Costco too far into cheap merchandise, even at his warehouse stores. He loves the idea of the "treasure hunt" -- occasional, temporary specials on exotic cheeses, Coach bags, plasma screen televisions, Waterford crystal, French wine and $5,000 necklaces -- scattered among staples like toilet paper by the case and institutional-size jars of mayonnaise.

The treasure hunts, Mr. Sinegal says, create a sense of excitement and customer loyalty.

This knack for seeing things in a new way also explains Costco's approach to retaining employees as well as shoppers. Besides paying considerably more than competitors, for example, Costco contributes generously to its workers' 401(k) plans, starting with 3 percent of salary the second year and rising to 9 percent after 25 years.

ITS insurance plans absorb most dental expenses, and part-time workers are eligible for health insurance after just six months on the job, compared with two years at Wal-Mart. Eighty-five percent of Costco's workers have health insurance, compared with less than half at Wal-Mart and Target.

Costco also has not shut out unions, as some of its rivals have. The Teamsters union, for example, represents 14,000 of Costco's 113,000 employees. "They gave us the best agreement of any retailer in the country," said Rome Aloise, the union's chief negotiator with Costco. The contract guarantees employees at least 25 hours of work a week, he said, and requires that at least half of a store's workers be full time.

Workers seem enthusiastic. Beth Wagner, 36, used to manage a Rite Aid drugstore, where she made $24,000 a year and paid nearly $4,000 a year for health coverage. She quit five years ago to work at Costco, taking a cut in pay. She started at $10.50 an hour -- $22,000 a year -- but now makes $18 an hour as a receiving clerk. With annual bonuses, her income is about $40,000.

"I want to retire here," she said. "I love it here."


Business costco


Costco Wholesale Corporation operates an international chain of membership warehouses, mainly under the "Costco Wholesale" name, that carry quality, brand-name merchandise at substantially lower prices than are typically found at conventional wholesale or retail sources. The warehouses are designed to help small- to medium-sized businesses reduce costs in purchasing for resale and for everyday business use. Individuals also may purchase for their personal needs. 

Costco warehouses present one of the largest and most exclusive product category selections to be found under a single roof. Categories include groceries, candy, appliances, television and media, automotive supplies, tires, toys, hardware, sporting goods, jewelry, watches, cameras, books, housewares, apparel, health and beauty aids, furniture, office supplies and office equipment. Costco is known for carrying top-quality national and regional brands, with a 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Members also can shop for private label Kirkland Signature™ products, designed to be of equal or better quality than national brands, including juice, cookies, coffee, housewares, luggage, clothing and detergent. The Company also operates self-service gasoline stations at a number of its U.S., Canada, Australia, Japan, United Kingdom, Spain, Mexico, Taiwan, and Iceland locations.

Additionally, Costco Wholesale Industries, a division of the Company, operates manufacturing businesses, including special food packaging, optical laboratories, meat processing and jewelry distribution. These businesses have a common goal of providing members with high quality products at substantially lower prices.

According to Craig Jelinek, the Company's president, CEO and director, "Costco is able to offer lower prices and better values by eliminating virtually all the frills and costs historically associated with conventional wholesalers and retailers, including salespeople, fancy buildings, delivery, billing and accounts receivable. We run a tight operation with extremely low overhead which enables us to pass dramatic savings to our members."

Costco is open only to members and offers three types of membership: Executive, Business and Gold Star. Executive Members receive additional savings on Costco Services such as auto and home insurance, Costco Auto Program, check printing, identity protection, payment processing and bottled water delivery. Executive Members in the U.S earn an annual 2% Reward (up to $1,000) on qualified Costco purchases. (Terms, conditions and exclusions apply. See the membership counter for details.) All types of membership include one free Household Card. Costco membership cards are accepted at Costco locations worldwide and online at

Business Members qualify by owning or operating a business, and pay an annual fee ($60 in the U.S.) to shop for resale, business and personal use. This fee includes one free Household Card. Business Members may purchase additional membership cards ($60 each) for partners or associates in the business.

Gold Star Members pay a $60 annual fee (in the U.S.), to shop for personal use. Individuals who don’t own a business may sign up for a Gold Star Membership. This fee includes one free Household Card.

Costco warehouses generally are open seven days a week for all members.

Costco is a Washington corporation, publicly traded under the Nasdaq ticker symbol "COST", with its home office in Issaquah, Washington.

A more complete description of the Company and its business is contained in the Company's periodic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Key Information

Number of warehouses:818 (as of 10/20/21)
Areas of operation:566 locations in 46 U.S. States & Puerto Rico;
105 locations in nine Canadian provinces;
29 locations in the United Kingdom;
14 locations in Taiwan;
16 locations in Korea;
30 locations in Japan;
13 locations in Australia;
39 locations in Mexico;
3 locations in Spain
1 location in Iceland
1 location in France
1 location in China
Membership Data (as of 9/23/21):111.6 million cardholders
61.7 million household
Warehouse sizes:80,000 to 230,000 square feet
(average 146,000 square feet)
Annual revenues
(FY21 - Ended 8/29/21):
$192 billion
Fiscal year end:Sunday closest to August 31
Number of U.S. employees:189,000 full and part-time
Number of employees (worldwide):288,000 full and part-time

Costco purchases land for first Houston-area Costco Business Center

“This is a great addition for our residents and will wonderfully complement our growing businesses,” said Stafford Mayor Cecil Willis in a statement.

“I am excited that Costco has chosen East Fort Bend to launch the first location of its unique Business Center concept in the Houston area,” said Fort Bend County Commissioner Grady Prestage.

On of former Texas Instruments campus breaks ground

The site where Costco is building 148,000 square feet of retail space was once home to the Texas Instruments campus before the technology company, well known for its graphing calculators, relocated in 2012. StreetLevel Investments and joint-venture partner Provident Realty Advisors are turning the site, off of I-69 between West Airport Boulevard and South Kirkwood Road, into a mixed-use development that unfolds over 192 acres.

The big-box retailer declined to comment on the new location, saying in an email, “Unfortunately, it is our company policy to not comment regarding future Costco warehouses until we are ready to share details about the new location (usually 2-3 months in advance).”

The Grid, which is being developed in phases, has already opened 726 apartments in two developments; an In-N-Out Burger, the California chain with a fanatical following; Whiskey Cake, a craft cocktail bar and restaurant; and a number of other restaurants. A Torchy’s is set to open in May.

At build-out, the $500 million project plans to have 350,000 square feet of retail, restaurant and entertainment, 2,400 apartments, 500,000 square feet of office, multiple hotels, a health club and a network of pocket parks and trails. Architecture firm Gensler and landscape architecture company TBG are consultants on the project, said StreetLevel Investments.

The Grid, which began construction in 2018, was granted a 70 percent county tax abatement for 15 years, and the developers could be reimbursed for as much as $52 million worth of infrastructure improvements made to the site, including new roads, landscaping, water and sewer systems and public parking garages.

PlainsCapital Bank of Dallas is financing the project.

Includes previous reporting by Nancy Sarnoff.

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