F 16 takeoff distance

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F-16 take off distance

Operating an F-16 on the ground or in the air - from the engine start sequence, over replacing a wing, to aerial refueling procedures
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f100pw229

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Unread post06 Mar 2004 07:55

I'm new here. Thanks for having me. My favorite airplane ever, I know much about it and it will be weird to be around ppl who know more.... :D

What is the average take off distance required for the F-16?
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Habu

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Unread post06 Mar 2004 09:17

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Viperwiper

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Unread post28 Mar 2004 08:06

I believe block 50's take off in less? I could have been imaging things when I saw a 50 take off..
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Gman

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Unread post10 Jun 2008 04:07

How is the "go/no go" determined?
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PeFo

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Unread post10 Jun 2008 05:13

Whether or not that yellow and black D ring is pulled :whistle:
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JpoLgr

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Unread post10 Jun 2008 15:12

Hello,
Viper take-off distances range from roughly 1000 to 5000 ft.
A common distance for a jet with 2 370's is 2000 ft.
There is no such thing as a go/no go speed up to about 40.000lbs T/O weight. Heavier jets have a refusal speed. That's how it's called in fighters.

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Gman

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Unread post10 Jun 2008 15:30

I was a boomer in KC-135s back 40 years ago, and I remember the co-pilot keeping track of the airspeed and location on the runway as we were in a takeoff roll. In the mission planning, the go/no go was calculated based on runway length and gross weight. We had to be at a certain speed at a certain spot on the runway or we aborted take off.
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elguapo

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Unread post10 Jun 2008 19:15

In the mission planning, the go/no go was calculated based on runway length and gross weight. We had to be at a certain speed at a certain spot on the runway or we aborted take off.


Density altitude is also used in calculating the go/nogo point on the runway. Also know as V2 in pilot terms
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Unread post10 Jun 2008 23:59

The go / no-go decision in the F16 is directly proportionate to your gear position. Gear up - eject. Down - no go. With only 1 engine you don't have much of a choice in the matter. The 1500' or less t/o roll is only possible via an A/B takeoff in a clean / pseudo-clean config. Otherwise the BLK50 is normally around 3k.
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Unread post11 Jun 2008 05:33

Density altitude is also used in calculating the go/nogo point on the runway. Also know as V2 in pilot terms[/quote]

I think you mean V1 is the go/no go speed. V2 is the climb speed one would fly if they lost an engine in the early phase of flight.

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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

family of multi-role fighter aircraft

"F-16" and "F-16 Fighting Falcon" redirect here. For the video game, see Falcon (video game series). For other uses, see F-16 (disambiguation).

The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirolefighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiorityday fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,600 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976.[4] Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers.[5] In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation,[6] which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.[7]

The Fighting Falcon's key features include a frameless bubble canopy for better visibility, side-mounted control stick to ease control while maneuvering, an ejection seat reclined 30 degrees from vertical to reduce the effect of g-forces on the pilot, and the first use of a relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire flight control system that helps to make it an agile aircraft. The F-16 has an internal M61 Vulcan cannon and 11 locations for mounting weapons and other mission equipment. The F-16's official name is "Fighting Falcon", but "Viper" is commonly used by its pilots and crews, due to a perceived resemblance to a viper snake as well as the Colonial Viper starfighter on Battlestar Galactica which aired at the time the F-16 entered service.[8][9]

In addition to active duty in the U.S. Air Force, Air Force Reserve Command, and Air National Guard units, the aircraft is also used by the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team, and as an adversary/aggressor aircraft by the United States Navy. The F-16 has also been procured to serve in the air forces of 25 other nations.[10] As of 2015, it was the world's most numerous fixed-wing aircraft in military service.[11]

Development[edit]

Lightweight Fighter program[edit]

Main article: Lightweight Fighter program

Experiences in the Vietnam War revealed the need for air superiority fighters and better air-to-air training for fighter pilots.[12] Based on his experiences in the Korean War and as a fighter tactics instructor in the early 1960s, Colonel John Boyd with mathematician Thomas Christie developed the energy–maneuverability theory to model a fighter aircraft's performance in combat. Boyd's work called for a small, lightweight aircraft that could maneuver with the minimum possible energy loss and which also incorporated an increased thrust-to-weight ratio.[13][14] In the late 1960s, Boyd gathered a group of like-minded innovators who became known as the Fighter Mafia, and in 1969, they secured Department of Defense funding for General Dynamics and Northrop to study design concepts based on the theory.[15][16]

Air Force F-X proponents remained hostile to the concept because they perceived it as a threat to the F-15 program, but the USAF's leadership understood that its budget would not allow it to purchase enough F-15 aircraft to satisfy all of its missions.[17] The Advanced Day Fighter concept, renamed F-XX, gained civilian political support under the reform-minded Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard, who favored the idea of competitive prototyping. As a result, in May 1971, the Air Force Prototype Study Group was established, with Boyd a key member, and two of its six proposals would be funded, one being the Lightweight Fighter (LWF). The request for proposals issued on 6 January 1972 called for a 20,000-pound (9,100 kg) class air-to-air day fighter with a good turn rate, acceleration, and range, and optimized for combat at speeds of Mach 0.6–1.6 and altitudes of 30,000–40,000 feet (9,100–12,000 m). This was the region where USAF studies predicted most future air combat would occur. The anticipated average flyaway cost of a production version was $3 million. This production plan, though, was only notional, as the USAF had no firm plans to procure the winner.[18][19]

Selection of finalists and flyoff[edit]

Two jet aircraft flying together over mountain range and cloud
A right-side view of a YF-16 (foreground) and a Northrop YF-17, each armed with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles

Five companies responded, and in 1972, the Air Staff selected General Dynamics' Model 401 and Northrop's P-600 for the follow-on prototype development and testing phase. GD and Northrop were awarded contracts worth $37.9 million and $39.8 million to produce the YF-16 and YF-17, respectively, with the first flights of both prototypes planned for early 1974. To overcome resistance in the Air Force hierarchy, the Fighter Mafia and other LWF proponents successfully advocated the idea of complementary fighters in a high-cost/low-cost force mix. The "high/low mix" would allow the USAF to be able to afford sufficient fighters for its overall fighter force structure requirements. The mix gained broad acceptance by the time of the prototypes' flyoff, defining the relationship of the LWF and the F-15.[20][21]

The YF-16 was developed by a team of General Dynamics engineers led by Robert H. Widmer.[22] The first YF-16 was rolled out on 13 December 1973. Its 90-minute maiden flight was made at the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, California, on 2 February 1974. Its actual first flight occurred accidentally during a high-speed taxi test on 20 January 1974. While gathering speed, a roll-control oscillation caused a fin of the port-side wingtip-mounted missile and then the starboard stabilator to scrape the ground, and the aircraft then began to veer off the runway. The test pilot, Phil Oestricher, decided to lift off to avoid a potential crash, safely landing six minutes later. The slight damage was quickly repaired and the official first flight occurred on time.[23] The YF-16's first supersonic flight was accomplished on 5 February 1974, and the second YF-16 prototype first flew on 9 May 1974. This was followed by the first flights of Northrop's YF-17 prototypes on 9 June and 21 August 1974, respectively. During the fly off, the YF-16s completed 330 sorties for a total of 417 flight hours;[24] the YF-17s flew 288 sorties, covering 345 hours.[25]

Air Combat Fighter competition[edit]

Increased interest turned the LWF into a serious acquisition program. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway were seeking to replace their F-104G Starfighterfighter-bombers.[26] In early 1974, they reached an agreement with the U.S. that if the USAF ordered the LWF winner, they would consider ordering it as well. The USAF also needed to replace its F-105 Thunderchief and F-4 Phantom II fighter-bombers. The U.S. Congress sought greater commonality in fighter procurements by the Air Force and Navy, and in August 1974 redirected Navy funds to a new Navy Air Combat Fighter program that would be a navalized fighter-bomber variant of the LWF. The four NATO allies had formed the Multinational Fighter Program Group (MFPG) and pressed for a U.S. decision by December 1974; thus, the USAF accelerated testing.[27][28][29]

To reflect this serious intent to procure a new fighter-bomber, the LWF program was rolled into a new Air Combat Fighter (ACF) competition in an announcement by U.S. Secretary of DefenseJames R. Schlesinger in April 1974. The ACF would not be a pure fighter, but multi-role, and Schlesinger made it clear that any ACF order would be in addition to the F-15, which extinguished opposition to the LWF.[28][29][30] ACF also raised the stakes for GD and Northrop because it brought in competitors intent on securing what was touted at the time as "the arms deal of the century".[31] These were Dassault-Breguet's proposed Mirage F1M-53, the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar, and the proposed Saab 37E "Eurofighter". Northrop offered the P-530 Cobra, which was similar to the YF-17. The Jaguar and Cobra were dropped by the MFPG early on, leaving two European and the two U.S. candidates. On 11 September 1974, the U.S. Air Force confirmed plans to order the winning ACF design to equip five tactical fighter wings. Though computer modeling predicted a close contest, the YF-16 proved significantly quicker going from one maneuver to the next and was the unanimous choice of those pilots that flew both aircraft.[32]

On 13 January 1975, Secretary of the Air ForceJohn L. McLucas announced the YF-16 as the winner of the ACF competition.[33] The chief reasons given by the secretary were the YF-16's lower operating costs, greater range, and maneuver performance that was "significantly better" than that of the YF-17, especially at supersonic speeds. Another advantage of the YF-16 – unlike the YF-17 – was its use of the Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine, the same powerplant used by the F-15; such commonality would lower the cost of engines for both programs.[34] Secretary McLucas announced that the USAF planned to order at least 650, possibly up to 1,400 production F-16s. In the Navy Air Combat Fighter competition, on 2 May 1975 the Navy selected the YF-17 as the basis for what would become the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet.[35][36]

Commencement of production[edit]

The U.S. Air Force initially ordered 15 full-scale development (FSD) aircraft (11 single-seat and four two-seat models) for its flight test program, but was reduced to eight (six F-16A single-seaters and two F-16B two-seaters).[37] The YF-16 design was altered for the production F-16. The fuselage was lengthened by 10.6 in (0.269 m), a larger nose radome was fitted for the AN/APG-66 radar, wing area was increased from 280 sq ft (26 m2) to 300 sq ft (28 m2), the tailfin height was decreased, the ventral fins were enlarged, two more stores stations were added, and a single door replaced the original nosewheel double doors. The F-16's weight was increased by 25% over the YF-16 by these modifications.[38][39]

The FSD F-16s were manufactured by General Dynamics in Fort Worth, Texas at United States Air Force Plant 4 in late 1975; the first F-16A rolled out on 20 October 1976 and first flew on 8 December. The initial two-seat model achieved its first flight on 8 August 1977. The initial production-standard F-16A flew for the first time on 7 August 1978 and its delivery was accepted by the USAF on 6 January 1979. The F-16 was given its name of "Fighting Falcon" on 21 July 1980, entering USAF operational service with the 34th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at Hill AFB in Utah on 1 October 1980.[40]

On 7 June 1975, the four European partners, now known as the European Participation Group, signed up for 348 aircraft at the Paris Air Show. This was split among the European Participation Air Forces (EPAF) as 116 for Belgium, 58 for Denmark, 102 for the Netherlands, and 72 for Norway. Two European production lines, one in the Netherlands at Fokker's Schiphol-Oost facility and the other at SABCA'sGosselies plant in Belgium, would produce 184 and 164 units respectively. Norway's Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk and Denmark's Terma A/S also manufactured parts and subassemblies for EPAF aircraft. European co-production was officially launched on 1 July 1977 at the Fokker factory. Beginning in November 1977, Fokker-produced components were sent to Fort Worth for fuselage assembly, then shipped back to Europe for final assembly of EPAF aircraft at the Belgian plant on 15 February 1978; deliveries to the Belgian Air Force began in January 1979. The first Royal Netherlands Air Force aircraft was delivered in June 1979. In 1980, the first aircraft were delivered to the Royal Norwegian Air Force by SABCA and to the Royal Danish Air Force by Fokker.[41][42]

During the late 1980s and 1990s, Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) produced 232 Block 30/40/50 F-16s on a production line in Ankara under license for the Turkish Air Force. TAI also produced 46 Block 40s for Egypt in the mid-1990s and 30 Block 50s from 2010. Korean Aerospace Industries opened a production line for the KF-16 program, producing 140 Block 52s from the mid-1990s to mid-2000s (decade). If India had selected the F-16IN for its Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft procurement, a sixth F-16 production line would have been built in India.[43] In May 2013, Lockheed Martin stated there were currently enough orders to keep producing the F-16 until 2017.[44]

Improvements and upgrades[edit]

One change made during production was augmented pitch control to avoid deep stall conditions at high angles of attack. The stall issue had been raised during development but had originally been discounted. Model tests of the YF-16 conducted by the Langley Research Center revealed a potential problem, but no other laboratory was able to duplicate it. YF-16 flight tests were not sufficient to expose the issue; later flight testing on the FSD aircraft demonstrated a real concern. In response, the area of each horizontal stabilizer was increased by 25% on the Block 15 aircraft in 1981 and later retrofitted to earlier aircraft. In addition, a manual override switch to disable the horizontal stabilizer flight limiter was prominently placed on the control console, allowing the pilot to regain control of the horizontal stabilizers (which the flight limiters otherwise lock in place) and recover. Besides reducing the risk of deep stalls, the larger horizontal tail also improved stability and permitted faster takeoff rotation.[45][46]

In the 1980s, the Multinational Staged Improvement Program (MSIP) was conducted to evolve the F-16's capabilities, mitigate risks during technology development, and ensure the aircraft's worth. The program upgraded the F-16 in three stages. The MSIP process permitted the quick introduction of new capabilities, at lower costs and with reduced risks compared to traditional independent upgrade programs.[47] In 2012, the USAF had allocated $2.8 billion to upgrade 350 F-16s while waiting for the F-35 to enter service.[48] One key upgrade has been an auto-GCAS (Ground collision avoidance system) to reduce instances of controlled flight into terrain.[49] Onboard power and cooling capacities limit the scope of upgrades, which often involve the addition of more power-hungry avionics.[50]

Lockheed won many contracts to upgrade foreign operators' F-16s. BAE Systems also offers various F-16 upgrades, receiving orders from South Korea, Oman, Turkey, and the US Air National Guard;[51][52][53] BAE lost the South Korean contract due to a price breach in November 2014.[54] In 2012, the USAF assigned the total upgrade contract to Lockheed Martin.[55] Upgrades include Raytheon's Center Display Unit, which replaces several analog flight instruments with a single digital display.[56]

In 2013, sequestration budget cuts cast doubt on the USAF's ability to complete the Combat Avionics Programmed Extension Suite (CAPES), a part of secondary programs such as Taiwan's F-16 upgrade.[57]Air Combat Command's General Mike Hostage stated that if he only had money for a service life extension program (SLEP) or CAPES, he would fund SLEP to keep the aircraft flying.[58] Lockheed Martin responded to talk of CAPES cancellation with a fixed-price upgrade package for foreign users.[59] CAPES was not included in the Pentagon's 2015 budget request.[60] The USAF said that the upgrade package will still be offered to the Republic of China Air Force, and Lockheed said that some common elements with the F-35 will keep the radar's unit costs down.[61] In 2014, the USAF issued a RFI to SLEP 300 F-16 C/Ds.[62]

Production relocation[edit]

To make more room for assembly of its newer F-35 Lightning II fighter aircraft, Lockheed Martin moved the F-16 production from Fort Worth, Texas to its plant in Greenville, South Carolina.[1] Lockheed delivered the last F-16 from Fort Worth to the Iraqi Air Force on 14 November 2017, ending 40 years of F-16 production there. The company is hoping to finish the Greenville move and restart production in 2019, though engineering and modernization work will remain in Fort Worth.[63] A gap in orders made it possible to stop production during the move; after completing orders for the last Iraqi purchase,[64] the company was negotiating an F-16 sale to Bahrain that would be produced in Greenville. This contract was signed in June 2018.[3]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

Early

Late

Comparison between F-16's inset cannon; early aircraft had four leading vents, a grille, and four trailing vents, while later aircraft had two trailing vents only.

The F-16 is a single-engine, highly maneuverable, supersonic, multi-role tactical fighter aircraft. It is much smaller and lighter than its predecessors but uses advanced aerodynamics and avionics, including the first use of a relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire (RSS/FBW) flight control system, to achieve enhanced maneuver performance. Highly agile, the F-16 was the first fighter aircraft purpose-built to pull 9-g maneuvers and can reach a maximum speed of over Mach 2. Innovations include a frameless bubble canopy for better visibility, a side-mounted control stick, and a reclined seat to reduce g-force effects on the pilot. It is armed with an internal M61 Vulcancannon in the left wing root and has multiple locations for mounting various missiles, bombs and pods. It has a thrust-to-weight ratio greater than one, providing power to climb and vertical acceleration.[65]

The F-16 was designed to be relatively inexpensive to build and simpler to maintain than earlier-generation fighters. The airframe is built with about 80% aviation-grade aluminum alloys, 8% steel, 3% composites, and 1.5% titanium. The leading-edge flaps, stabilators, and ventral fins make use of bonded aluminum honeycomb structures and graphite epoxylaminationcoatings. The number of lubrication points, fuel line connections, and replaceable modules is significantly lower than preceding fighters; 80% of the access panels can be accessed without stands.[43] The air intake was placed so it was rearward of the nose but forward enough to minimize air flow losses and reduce aerodynamic drag.[66]

Although the LWF program called for a structural life of 4,000 flight hours, capable of achieving 7.33 g with 80% internal fuel; GD's engineers decided to design the F-16's airframe life for 8,000 hours and for 9-g maneuvers on full internal fuel. This proved advantageous when the aircraft's mission changed from solely air-to-air combat to multi-role operations. Changes in operational use and additional systems have increased weight, necessitating multiple structural strengthening programs.[67]

General configuration[edit]

The F-16 has a cropped-delta wing incorporating wing-fuselage blending and forebody vortex-control strakes; a fixed-geometry, underslung air intake (with splitter plate[68]) to the single turbofan jet engine; a conventional tri-plane empennage arrangement with all-moving horizontal "stabilator" tailplanes; a pair of ventral fins beneath the fuselage aft of the wing's trailing edge; and a tricycle landing gear configuration with the aft-retracting, steerable nose gear deploying a short distance behind the inlet lip. There is a boom-style aerial refueling receptacle located behind the single-piece "bubble" canopy of the cockpit. Split-flap speedbrakes are located at the aft end of the wing-body fairing, and a tailhook is mounted underneath the fuselage. A fairing beneath the rudder often houses ECM equipment or a drag chute. Later F-16 models feature a long dorsal fairing along the fuselage's "spine", housing additional equipment or fuel.[43][69]

Aerodynamic studies in the 1960s demonstrated that the "vortex lift" phenomenon could be harnessed by highly swept wing configurations to reach higher angles of attack, using leading edge vortex flow off a slender lifting surface. As the F-16 was being optimized for high combat agility, GD's designers chose a slender cropped-delta wing with a leading-edge sweep of 40° and a straight trailing edge. To improve maneuverability, a variable-camber wing with a NACA 64A-204 airfoil was selected; the camber is adjusted by leading-edge and trailing edge flaperons linked to a digital flight control system regulating the flight envelope.[43][67] The F-16 has a moderate wing loading, reduced by fuselage lift.[70] The vortex lift effect is increased by leading-edge extensions, known as strakes. Strakes act as additional short-span, triangular wings running from the wing root (the junction with fuselage) to a point further forward on the fuselage. Blended into the fuselage and along the wing root, the strake generates a high-speed vortex that remains attached to the top of the wing as the angle of attack increases, generating additional lift and allowing greater angles of attack without stalling. Strakes allow a smaller, lower-aspect-ratio wing, which increases roll rates and directional stability while decreasing weight. Deeper wing roots also increase structural strength and internal fuel volume.[67]

Armament[edit]

Early F-16s could be armed with up to six AIM-9 Sidewinder heat-seeking short-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) by employing rail launchers on each wingtip, as well as radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range AAMs in a weapons mix.[71] More recent versions support the AIM-120 AMRAAM, and US aircraft often mount that missile on their wingtips to reduce wing flutter.[72] The aircraft can carry various other AAMs, a wide variety of air-to-ground missiles, rockets or bombs; electronic countermeasures (ECM), navigation, targeting or weapons pods; and fuel tanks on 9 hardpoints – six under the wings, two on wingtips, and one under the fuselage. Two other locations under the fuselage are available for sensor or radar pods.[71] The F-16 carries a 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A1 Vulcan cannon for close range aerial combat and strafing.[citation needed] The 20 mm cannon is mounted inside the fuselage on the left of the cockpit.[71]

Negative stability and fly-by-wire[edit]

F-16C of the South Carolina Air National Guardin-flight over North Carolina equipped with air-to-air missiles, bomb rack, targeting pods and electronic countermeasures pods

The F-16 is the first production fighter aircraft intentionally designed to be slightly aerodynamically unstable, also known as relaxed static stability (RSS), to improve maneuverability.[73] Most aircraft are designed with positive static stability, which induces aircraft to return to straight and level flight attitude if the pilot releases the controls; this reduces maneuverability as the inherent stability has to be overcome. Aircraft with negative stability are designed to deviate from controlled flight and are thus more maneuverable. At supersonic speeds the F-16 gains stability (eventually positive) due to aerodynamic changes.[74][75]

To counter the tendency to depart from controlled flight and avoid the need for constant trim inputs by the pilot, the F-16 has a quadruplex (four-channel) fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system (FLCS). The flight control computer (FLCC) accepts pilot input from the stick and rudder controls and manipulates the control surfaces in such a way as to produce the desired result without inducing control loss. The FLCC conducts thousands of measurements per second on the aircraft's flight attitude to automatically counter deviations from the pilot-set flight path; leading to a common aphorism among pilots: "You don't fly an F-16; it flies you."[76]

The FLCC further incorporates limiters governing movement in the three main axes based on attitude, airspeed and angle of attack (AOA); these prevent control surfaces from inducing instability such as slips or skids, or a high AOA inducing a stall. The limiters also prevent maneuvers that would exert more than a 9 g load.[77] Flight testing has revealed that "assaulting" multiple limiters at high AOA and low speed can result in an AOA far exceeding the 25° limit, colloquially referred to as "departing"; this causes a deep stall; a near-freefall at 50° to 60° AOA, either upright or inverted. While at a very high AOA, the aircraft's attitude is stable but control surfaces are ineffective. The pitch limiter locks the stabilators at an extreme pitch-up or pitch-down attempting to recover. This can be overridden so the pilot can "rock" the nose via pitch control to recover.[78]

Unlike the YF-17, which had hydromechanical controls serving as a backup to the FBW, General Dynamics took the innovative step of eliminating mechanical linkages from the control stick and rudder pedals to the flight control surfaces. The F-16 is entirely reliant on its electrical systems to relay flight commands, instead of traditional mechanically linked controls, leading to the early moniker of "the electric jet". The quadruplex design permits "graceful degradation" in flight control response in that the loss of one channel renders the FLCS a "triplex" system.[79] The FLCC began as an analog system on the A/B variants but has been supplanted by a digital computer system beginning with the F-16C/D Block 40.[80][81] The F-16's controls suffered from a sensitivity to static electricity or electrostatic discharge (ESD). Up to 70–80% of the C/D models' electronics were vulnerable to ESD.[82]

Cockpit and ergonomics[edit]

Bubble canopy, allowing all-round visibility

A key feature of the F-16's cockpit is the exceptional field of view. The single-piece, bird-proofpolycarbonate bubble canopy provides 360° all-round visibility, with a 40° look-down angle over the side of the aircraft, and 15° down over the nose (compared to the common 12–13° of preceding aircraft); the pilot's seat is elevated for this purpose. Furthermore, the F-16's canopy lacks the forward bow frame found on many fighters, which is an obstruction to a pilot's forward vision.[43][83] The F-16's ACES IIzero/zero ejection seat is reclined at an unusual tilt-back angle of 30°; most fighters have a tilted seat at 13–15°. The tilted seat can accommodate taller pilots and increases g-force tolerance; however, it has been associated with reports of neck ache, possibly caused by incorrect head-rest usage.[84] Subsequent U.S. fighters have adopted more modest tilt-back angles of 20°.[43][85] Due to the seat angle and the canopy's thickness, the ejection seat lacks canopy-breakers for emergency egress; instead the entire canopy is jettisoned prior to the seat's rocket firing.[86]

Cramped cockpit of jet trainer, showing dials and instruments
F-16 ground trainer cockpit (F-16 MLU)

The pilot flies primarily by means of an armrest-mounted side-stick controller (instead of a traditional center-mounted stick) and an engine throttle; conventional rudder pedals are also employed. To enhance the pilot's degree of control of the aircraft during high-g combat maneuvers, various switches and function controls were moved to centralized hands on throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls upon both the controllers and the throttle. Hand pressure on the side-stick controller is transmitted by electrical signals via the FBW system to adjust various flight control surfaces to maneuver the F-16. Originally, the side-stick controller was non-moving, but this proved uncomfortable and difficult for pilots to adjust to, sometimes resulting in a tendency to "over-rotate" during takeoffs, so the control stick was given a small amount of "play". Since the introduction of the F-16, HOTAS controls have become a standard feature on modern fighters.[87]

The F-16 has a head-up display (HUD), which projects visual flight and combat information in front of the pilot without obstructing the view; being able to keep their head "out of the cockpit" improves the pilot's situation awareness.[88] Further flight and systems information are displayed on multi-function displays (MFD). The left-hand MFD is the primary flight display (PFD), typically showing radar and moving-maps; the right-hand MFD is the system display (SD), presenting information about the engine, landing gear, slat and flap settings, and fuel and weapons status. Initially, the F-16A/B had monochrome cathode ray tube (CRT) displays; replaced by color liquid-crystal displays on the Block 50/52.[43][89] The MLU introduced compatibility with night-vision goggles (NVG). The BoeingJoint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is available from Block 40 onwards, for targeting based on where the pilot's head faces, unrestricted by the HUD, using high-off-boresight missiles like the AIM-9X.[90]

Fire-control radar[edit]

The F-16A/B was originally equipped with the WestinghouseAN/APG-66fire-control radar. Its slotted planar array antenna was designed to be compact to fit into the F-16's relatively small nose. In uplook mode, the APG-66 uses a low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) for medium- and high-altitude target detection in a low-clutter environment, and in look-down/shoot-down employs a medium PRF for heavy clutter environments. It has four operating frequencies within the X band, and provides four air-to-air and seven air-to-ground operating modes for combat, even at night or in bad weather. The Block 15's APG-66(V)2 model added a more powerful signal processing, higher output power, improved reliability and increased range in cluttered or jamming environments. The Mid-Life Update (MLU) program introduced a new model, APG-66(V)2A, which features higher speed and more memory.[91]

AN-APG-68, as fitted to the nose

The AN/APG-68, an evolution of the APG-66, was introduced with the F-16C/D Block 25. The APG-68 has greater range and resolution, as well as 25 operating modes, including ground-mapping, Doppler beam-sharpening, ground moving target indication, sea target, and track while scan (TWS) for up to 10 targets. The Block 40/42's APG-68(V)1 model added full compatibility with Lockheed Martin Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infra-Red for Night (LANTIRN) pods, and a high-PRF pulse-Doppler track mode to provide Interrupted Continuous Wave guidance for semi-active radar-homing (SARH) missiles like the AIM-7 Sparrow. Block 50/52 F-16s initially used the more reliable APG-68(V)5 which has a programmable signal processor employing Very-High-Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) technology. The Advanced Block 50/52 (or 50+/52+) are equipped with the APG-68(V)9 radar, with a 30% greater air-to-air detection range and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode for high-resolution mapping and target detection-recognition. In August 2004, Northrop Grumman was contracted to upgrade the APG-68 radars of Block 40/42/50/52 aircraft to the (V)10 standard, providing all-weather autonomous detection and targeting for Global Positioning System (GPS)-aided precision weapons, SAR mapping and terrain-following radar (TF) modes, as well as interleaving of all modes.[43]

The F-16E/F is outfitted with Northrop Grumman's AN/APG-80active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar.[92] Northrop Grumman developed the latest AESA radar upgrade for the F-16 (selected for USAF and Republic of China Air Force F-16 upgrades), named the Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR) APG-83.[93][94] In July 2007, Raytheon announced that it was developing a Next Generation Radar (RANGR) based on its earlier AN/APG-79 AESA radar as a competitor to Northrop Grumman's AN/APG-68 and AN/APG-80 for the F-16.[43] On February 28, 2020, Northrop Grumman received an order from USAF to extend the service lives of their F-16s to at least 2048 with APG-83 Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR) as part of the service-life extension program (SLEP).[95]

Propulsion[edit]

Afterburner - concentric ring structure inside the exhaust

The initial powerplant selected for the single-engined F-16 was the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200afterburning turbofan, a modified version of the F-15's F100-PW-100, rated at 23,830 lbf (106.0 kN) thrust. During testing, the engine was found to be prone to compressor stalls and "rollbacks", wherein the engine's thrust would spontaneously reduce to idle. Until resolved, the Air Force ordered F-16s to be operated within "dead-stick landing" distance of its bases.[96] It was the standard F-16 engine through the Block 25, except for the newly built Block 15s with the Operational Capability Upgrade (OCU). The OCU introduced the 23,770 lbf (105.7 kN) F100-PW-220, later installed on Block 32 and 42 aircraft: the main advance being a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) unit, which improved reliability and reduced stall occurrence. Beginning production in 1988, the "-220" also supplanted the F-15's "-100", for commonality. Many of the "-220" engines on Block 25 and later aircraft were upgraded from 1997 onwards to the "-220E" standard, which enhanced reliability and maintainability; unscheduled engine removals were reduced by 35%.[97][98]

Adjustable exhaust nozzle in contracted position

The F100-PW-220/220E was the result of the USAF's Alternate Fighter Engine (AFE) program (colloquially known as "the Great Engine War"), which also saw the entry of General Electric as an F-16 engine provider. Its F110-GE-100 turbofan was limited by the original inlet to thrust of 25,735 lbf (114.5 kN), the Modular Common Inlet Duct allowed the F110 to achieve its maximum thrust of 28,984 lbf (128.9 kN). (To distinguish between aircraft equipped with these two engines and inlets, from the Block 30 series on, blocks ending in "0" (e.g., Block 30) are powered by GE, and blocks ending in "2" (e.g., Block 32) are fitted with Pratt & Whitney engines.)[97][99]

The Increased Performance Engine (IPE) program led to the 29,588 lbf (131.6 kN) F110-GE-129 on the Block 50 and 29,160 lbf (129.4 kN) F100-PW-229 on the Block 52. F-16s began flying with these IPE engines in the early 1990s. Altogether, of the 1,446 F-16C/Ds ordered by the USAF, 556 were fitted with F100-series engines and 890 with F110s.[43] The United Arab Emirates’ Block 60 is powered by the General Electric F110-GE-132 turbofan with a maximum thrust of 32,500 lbf (144.6 kN), the highest thrust engine developed for the F-16.[100][101]

Operational history[edit]

Main article: General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon operational history

F-16s have participated in numerous conflicts, most of them in the Middle East.

United States[edit]

The F-16 is being used by the active duty USAF, Air Force Reserve, and Air National Guard units, the USAF aerial demonstration team, the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds, and as an adversary-aggressor aircraft by the United States Navy at the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center.

The U.S. Air Force, including the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard, flew the F-16 in combat during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and in the Balkans later in the 1990s. F-16s also patrolled the no-fly zones in Iraq during Operations Northern Watch and Southern Watch and served during the wars in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) from 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2011, Air Force F-16s took part in the intervention in Libya.[102]

On 11 September 2001, two unarmed F-16s were launched in an attempt to ram and down United Airlines Flight 93 before it reached Washington, DC, during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. But Flight 93 was brought down by the passengers first. So the F-16s patrolled the local airspace and escorted the President's airplane that day.[103][104][importance?]

The F-16 had been scheduled to remain in service with the U.S. Air Force until 2025.[105] Its replacement was planned to be the F-35A variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, which is expected to gradually begin replacing several multi-role aircraft among the program's member nations. However, due to delays in the F-35 program, all USAF F-16s will receive service life extension upgrades.[106]

Israel[edit]

The F-16's first air-to-air combat success was achieved by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) over the Bekaa Valley on 28 April 1981, against a Syrian Mi-8 helicopter, which was downed with cannon fire.[108] On 7 June 1981, eight Israeli F-16s, escorted by six F-15s, executed Operation Opera, their first employment in a significant air-to-ground operation. This raid severely damaged Osirak, an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction near Baghdad, to prevent the regime of Saddam Hussein from using the reactor for the creation of nuclear weapons.[109]

The following year, during the 1982 Lebanon War Israeli F-16s engaged Syrian aircraft in one of the largest air battles involving jet aircraft, which began on 9 June and continued for two more days. Israeli Air Force F-16s were credited with 44 air-to-air kills during the conflict.[108][110]

Israeli Air Force F-16I Sufa

In January 2000, Israel completed a purchase of 102 new F-16I aircraft in a deal totaling $4.5 billion.[111] F-16s were also used in their ground-attack role for strikes against targets in Lebanon. IAF F-16s participated in the 2006 Lebanon War and the 2008–09 Gaza War.[112] During and after the 2006 Lebanon war, IAF F-16s shot down Iranian-made UAVs launched by Hezbollah, using RafaelPython 5air-to-air missiles.[113][114][115]

On 10 February 2018, an Israeli Air Force F-16I was shot down in northern Israel when it was hit by a relatively old model S-200 (NATO name SA-5 Gammon) surface-to-air missile of the Syrian Air Defense Force.[116] The pilot and navigator ejected safely in Israeli territory. The F-16I was part of a bombing mission against Syrian and Iranian targets around Damascus after an Iranian drone entered Israeli air space and was shot down.[117] An Israel Air Force investigation determined on 27 February 2018 that the loss was due to pilot error since the IAF determined the air crew did not adequately defend themselves.[118]

Pakistan[edit]

During the Soviet–Afghan War, between May 1986 and January 1989, Pakistan Air Force F-16s shot down at least eight intruders from Afghanistan. The first three of these (two AfghanSu-22s and one An-26) were shot down by two pilots. Pakistani pilots also downed five other intruders (two Su-22s, two MiG-23s, and one Su-25).[119] Most of these kills were by AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, but at least one, a Su-22, was destroyed by cannon fire. Flight Lieutenant Khalid Mahmoud is credited with three of these kills. One F-16 was lost in these battles during an encounter between two F-16s and six Afghan aircraft on 29 April 1987; the pilot ejected safely. The downed F-16 was likely hit accidentally by a Sidewinder fired by the other F-16.[120][121]

On 7 June 2002, a Pakistan Air Force F-16B Block 15 (S. No. 82-605), flown by Sqn. Leader Zulfiqar, shot down an Indian Air Force unmanned aerial vehicle, an Israeli-made Searcher II, using an AIM-9L Sidewinder missile, during a night interception near Lahore, thus achieving a rare air-to-air kill of a drone at night.[121]

The Pakistan Air Force has used its F-16s in various foreign and internal military exercises, such as the "Indus Vipers" exercise in 2008 conducted jointly with Turkey.[122]

Between May 2009 and November 2011[update], the PAF F-16 fleet flew more than 5,500 sorties[needs update] in support of the Pakistan Army's operations against the Taliban insurgency in the FATA region of North-West Pakistan. More than 80% of the dropped munitions were laser-guided bombs.[123][124]

On 27 February 2019, two Pakistan Air Force F-16s from No. 11 'Arrows' Squadron, reportedly shot down one Indian Air Force (IAF) MiG-21 over Kashmir.[125][126][127][128] India claimed that a Pakistani F-16 was also shot down by the Indian MiG-21 that was shot down after a few minutes,[129][130] but the plane crashed in Pakistan administered Kashmir. India also denied the loss of any Su-30MKIs.[131] Pakistan denied the use or loss of any F-16 during the engagement.[132]

On 28 February 2019, India displayed debris of an AMRAAM missile to show use of F-16s in the mission.[129]Foreign Policy magazine reported that the US had completed a physical count of Pakistan's F-16s and found none missing.[133] On 6 April 2019, it was reported that the Pentagon declined to make official statement over any such count.[134]Washington Post reported that the Pentagon and the State Department have not issued a public statement on the F-16 count.[135] On 8 April 2019, the IAF released two radar images of aerial engagement to reassert its claims of downing an F-16.[136][137][130][138] However, Pakistani officials rejected the radar images released by India.[139] The only confirmed loss from the engagement was the MiG-21.[136][140][141][135][130] On 5 April 2019, PAF officials released images of all four missile recovered from the downed MiG-21 to disprove that it downed the F-16 with a missile.[142][misquoted]

Turkey[edit]

F-16 SoloTürk aerial aerobatic aircraft

The Turkish Air Force acquired its first F-16s in 1987. F-16s were later produced in Turkey under four phases of Peace Onyx programs. In 2015, they were upgraded to Block 50/52+ with CCIP by Turkish Aerospace Industries.[143] Turkish F-16s are being fitted with indigenous AESA radars and EW suite called SPEWS-II.[144]

On 18 June 1992, a Greek Mirage F-1 crashed during a dogfight with a Turkish F-16.[145][146][147] On 8 February 1995, a Turkish F-16 crashed into the Aegean sea after being intercepted by Greek Mirage F1 fighters.[148][149]

Turkish F-16s participated in the Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo since 1993 in support of United Nations resolutions.[150]

On 8 October 1996, seven months after the escalation a Greek Mirage 2000 reportedly fired an R.550 Magic II missile and shot down a Turkish F-16D over the Aegean Sea near Chios island.[151][152] The Turkish pilot died, while the co-pilot ejected and was rescued by Greek forces.[147][153][154] In August 2012, after the downing of a RF-4E on the Syrian Coast, Turkish Defence Minister İsmet Yılmaz confirmed that the Turkish F-16D was shot down by a Greek Mirage 2000 with an R.550 Magic II in 1996 near Chios island.[155] Greece denies that the F-16 was shot down.[156] Both Mirage 2000 pilots reported that the F-16 caught fire and they saw one parachute.[157][158]

On 23 May 2006, two Greek F-16s intercepted a Turkish RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft and two F-16 escorts off the coast of the Greek island of Karpathos, within the Athens FIR. A mock dogfight ensued between the two sides, resulting in a midair collision[159] between a Turkish F-16 and a Greek F-16. The Turkish pilot ejected safely, but the Greek pilot died due to damage caused by the collision.[160][161] Five days before the incident, a Turkish F-16 pilot was doing dangerous maneuvers, while being intercepted by Greek F-16 fighters, attempting to hit a Greek fighter.[162][163]

Turkey used its F-16s extensively in its conflict with Kurdish insurgents in southeastern parts of Turkey and Iraq. Turkey launched its first cross-border raid on 16 December 2007, a prelude to the 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq, involving 50 fighters before Operation Sun. This was the first time Turkey had mounted a night-bombing operation on a massive scale, and also the largest operation conducted by the Turkish Air Force.[164]

During the Syrian Civil War, Turkish F-16s were tasked with airspace protection on the Syrian border. After the RF-4 downing in June 2012 Turkey changed its rules of engagement against Syrian aircraft, resulting in scrambles and downings of Syrian combat aircraft.[165] On 16 September 2013, a Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Syrian Arab Air ForceMil Mi-17 helicopter in Latakia province near the Turkish border.[166] On 23 March 2014, a Turkish Air ForceF-16 shot down a Syrian Arab Air ForceMikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 when it allegedly entered Turkish air space during a ground attack mission against Al Qaeda-linked insurgents.[167] On 16 May 2015, Two Turkish Air ForceF-16s shot down a Syrian Mohajer 4 UAV firing two AIM-9 missiles after it trespassed into Turkish airspace for 5 minutes.[168][169] A Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 on the Turkey-Syria border on 24 November 2015.[170]

On 1 March 2020, two Syrian Sukhoi Su-24s were shot down by Turkish Air Force F-16s using air-to-air missiles over Syria's Idlib province.[171] All four pilots safely ejected.[172] On 3 March 2020, a Syrian Arab Army Air Force L-39 combat trainer was shot down by a Turkish F-16 over Syria's Idlib province.[173] The pilot died.[174]

As a part of Turkish F-16 modernization program new air to air missiles are being developed and tested for the aircraft. GÖKTUĞ program led by TUBITAK SAGE has presented two types of air to air missiles named as Bozdogan (Merlin) and Gokdogan (Peregrine). While Bozdogan has been categorized as a Within Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (WVRAAM), Gokdogan is a Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air-Missile (BVRAAM). On April 14, 2021, first live test exercise of Bozdogan have successfully completed and the first batch of missiles are expected to delivered throughout the same year to the Turkish Air Force.[175][176]

Egypt[edit]

On 16 February 2015, Egyptian F-16s struck weapons caches and training camps of the Islamic State (ISIS) in Libya in retaliation for the murder of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christian construction workers by masked militants affiliated with ISIS. The air strikes killed 64 ISIS fighters, including three leaders in Derna and Sirte on the coast.[177]

Others[edit]

The Royal Netherlands Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Royal Danish Air Force, Royal Norwegian Air Force, and Venezuela Air Force have flown the F-16 on combat missions.[178][179]

A Yugoslavian MiG-29 was shot down by a Dutch F-16AM during the Kosovo War in 1999.[180] Belgian and Danish F-16s also participated in joint operations over Kosovo during the war.[180] Dutch, Belgian, Danish, and Norwegian F-16s were deployed during the 2011 intervention in Libya and in Afghanistan.[181] In Libya, Norwegian F-16s dropped almost 550 bombs and flew 596 missions,[182] some 17% of the total strike missions[183] including the bombing of Muammar Gaddafi's headquarters.[184]

The Royal Moroccan Air Force and the Royal Bahraini Air Force each lost a single F-16C, both shot down by Houthis anti aircraft fire during the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, respectively on 11 May 2015 and on 30 December 2015.[185]

In late March 2018, Croatia announced its intention to purchase 12 used Israeli F-16C/D "Barak"/"Brakeet" jets, pending U.S. approval.[186] Acquiring these F-16s would allow Croatia to retire its aging MiG-21s.[187]

On 11 July 2018, Slovakia's government approved the purchase of 14 F-16s Block 70/72 to replace its aging fleet of Soviet-made MiG-29s.[188] A contract was signed on 12 December 2018 in Bratislava.[189]

See also: General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon operational history and General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon operators

Variants[edit]

Aircraft carrying missiles on tips of wings during flight over ocean. Under each wing is a cylindrical external fuel tank with pointed nose
A Portuguese Air ForceF-16A outfitted with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, AN/ALQ-131 ECM pod, and external fuel tanks.

Main article: General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants

F-16 models are denoted by increasing block numbers to denote upgrades. The blocks cover both single- and two-seat versions. A variety of software, hardware, systems, weapons compatibility, and structural enhancements have been instituted over the years to gradually upgrade production models and retrofit delivered aircraft.

While many F-16s were produced according to these block designs, there have been many other variants with significant changes, usually due to modification programs. Other changes have resulted in role-specialization, such as the close air support and reconnaissance variants. Several models were also developed to test new technology. The F-16 design also inspired the design of other aircraft, which are considered derivatives. Older F-16s are being converted into QF-16 drone targets.[190]

F-16A/B
The F-16A (single seat) and F-16B (two seat) were initial production variants. These variants include the Block 1, 5, 10 and 20 versions. Block 15 was the first major change to the F-16 with larger horizontal stabilizers. It is the most numerous of all F-16 variants with 475 produced.[191] Many F-16A and B aircraft have been upgraded to the Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) Block 20 standard, becoming functionally equivalent to mid-production C/D models.[citation needed]
F-16C/D
The F-16C (single seat) and F-16D (two seat) variants entered production in 1984. The first C/D version was the Block 25 with improved cockpit avionics and radar which added all-weather capability with beyond-visual-range (BVR) AIM-7 and AIM-120 air-air missiles. Block 30/32, 40/42, and 50/52 were later C/D versions.[192] The F-16C/D had a unit cost of US$18.8 million (1998).[65]Operational cost per flight hour has been estimated at $7,000[193] to $22,470[194] or $24,000, depending on calculation method.[195]
F-16E/F
The F-16E (single seat) and F-16F (two seat) are newer F-16 Block 60 variants based on the F-16C/D Block 50/52. The United Arab Emirates invested heavily in its development. It features improved AN/APG-80active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, avionics, conformal fuel tanks (CFTs), and the more powerful General Electric F110-GE-132 engine.[196][197][198][N 1]
F-16IN
For the Indian MRCA competition for the Indian Air Force, Lockheed Martin offered the F-16IN Super Viper.[201] The F-16IN is based on the F-16E/F Block 60 and features conformal fuel tanks; AN/APG-80 AESA radar, GE F110-GE-132A engine with FADEC controls; electronic warfare suite and Infra-red search and track (IRST) unit; updated glass cockpit; and a helmet-mounted cueing system.[202] As of 2011, the F-16IN is no longer in the competition.[203] In 2016, Lockheed Martin offered the new F-16 Block 70/72 version to India under the Make in India program.[204][205] In 2016, Indian government offered to purchase 200 (potentially up to 300) fighters in a deal worth $13–15bn.[206] As of 2017, Lockheed Martin has agreed to manufacture F-16 Block 70 fighters in India with the Indian defense firm Tata Advanced Systems Limited. The new production line could be used to build F-16s for India and for exports.[207]
F-16IQ
In September 2010, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency informed the United States Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale of 18 F-16IQ aircraft along with the associated equipment and services to the newly reformed Iraqi Air Force. Total value of sale is estimated at US$4.2 billion.[208]
F-16N
The F-16N was an adversary aircraft operated by the U.S. Navy. It is based on the standard F-16C/D Block 30 and is powered by the General Electric F110-GE-100 engine, and is capable of supercruise.[209] The F-16N has a strengthened wing and is capable of carrying an Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) pod on the starboard wingtip. Although the single-seat F-16Ns and twin-seat (T)F-16Ns are based on the early-production small-inlet Block 30 F-16C/D airframe, they retain the APG-66 radar of the F-16A/B. In addition, the aircraft's 20 mm cannon has been removed, as has the ASPJ, and they carry no missiles. Their EW fit consists of an ALR-69 radar warning receiver (RWR) and an ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser. The F-16Ns and (T)F-16Ns have the standard Air Force tailhook and undercarriage and are not aircraft carrier capable. Production totaled 26 airframes, of which 22 are single-seat F-16Ns and four are twin-seat TF-16Ns. The initial batch of aircraft were in service between 1988 and 1998. At that time, hairline cracks were discovered in several bulkheads and the Navy did not have the resources to replace them, so the aircraft were eventually retired, with one aircraft sent to the collection of the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola, Florida, and the remainder placed in storage at Davis-Monthan AFB. These aircraft were later replaced by embargoed ex-Pakistani F-16s in 2003. The original inventory of F-16Ns were previously operated by adversary squadrons at NAS Oceana, Virginia; NAS Key West, Florida and the former NAS Miramar, California. The current F-16A/B aircraft are operated by the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center at NAS Fallon, Nevada.[210][211][212]
F-16V
At the 2012 Singapore Air Show Lockheed Martin unveiled plans for the new F-16V variant with the V suffix for its Viper nickname. It features an AN/APG-83active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, a new mission computer and electronic warfare suite, automated ground collision avoidance system, and various cockpit improvements; this package is an option on current production F-16s and can be retrofitted to most in service F-16s.[213][214] First flight took place 21 October 2015.[215] Lockheed and AIDC both invested in the development of the aircraft and will share revenue from all sales and upgrades.[216] Upgrades to Taiwan's F-16 fleet began in January 2017.[217] The first country to confirm the purchase of 16 new F-16V Block 70/72 was Bahrain.[218][219] Slovakia announced on 11 July 2018 that it intends to purchase 14 F-16V Block 70/72 aircraft.[220][221] Lockheed Martin has redesignated the F-16V Block 70 as the "F-21" in its offering for India's fighter requirement.[222] The Republic of China Air Force announced on 19 March 2019 that it formally requested the purchase of an additional 66 F-16V jets.[223] The Trump administration approved the sale on 20 August 2019.[224][225] On 14 August 2020, Lockheed Martin was awarded a US$62 billion contract by the US DoD[226] that includes 66 new F-16s at US$8 billion for Taiwan.[227]
USAF QF-16A, on its first unmanned test flight, over the Gulf of Mexico
QF-16
In September 2013, Boeing and the U.S. Air Force tested an unmanned F-16, with two US Air Force pilots controlling the airplane from the ground as it flew from Tyndall AFB over the Gulf of Mexico.[228][229][230]

Related developments[edit]

Vought Model 1600
Proposed naval variant
General Dynamics F-16XL
1980s technology demonstrator
General Dynamics NF-16D VISTA
1990s experimental fighter
Mitsubishi F-2
1990s Japanese multi-role fighter based on the F-16

Operators[edit]

Map with F-16 operators in blue with former operator in red

Main article: General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon operators

By July 2010, there had been 4,500 F-16s delivered.[231]

Former operators[edit]

Notable accidents and incidents[edit]

See also: United States Air Force Thunderbirds § Accidents

The F-16 has been involved in over 670 hull-loss accidents as of January 2020.[233][234]

  • On 8 May 1975, while practicing a 9-g aerial display maneuver with the second YF-16 (tail number 72-1568) at Fort Worth, Texas, prior to being sent to the Paris Air Show, one of the main landing gears jammed. The test pilot, Neil Anderson, had to perform an emergency gear-up landing and chose to do so in the grass, hoping to minimize damage and to avoid injuring any observers. The aircraft was only slightly damaged, but due to the mishap the first prototype was sent to the Paris Air Show in its place.[235]
  • On 15 November 1982, while on a training flight outside Kunsan Air Base in South Korea, USAF Captain Ted Harduvel died when he crashed inverted into a mountain ridge. In 1985, Harduvel's widow filed a lawsuit against General Dynamics claiming an electrical malfunction, not pilot error, as the cause; a jury awarded the plaintiff $3.4 million in damages. However, in 1989, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled the contractor had immunity to lawsuits, overturning the previous judgment. The court remanded the case to the trial court "for entry of judgment in favor of General Dynamics".[236] The accident and subsequent trial was the subject of the 1992 film Afterburn.[237][238]
  • On 23 March 1994, during a joint Army-Air Force exercise at Pope AFB, North Carolina, F-16D (AF Serial No. 88-0171) of the 23d Fighter Wing / 74th Fighter Squadron was simulating an engine-out approach when it collided with a USAF C-130E. Both F-16 crew members ejected, but their aircraft, on full afterburner, continued on an arc towards Green Ramp and struck a USAF C-141 that was being boarded by US Army paratroopers. This accident resulted in 24 fatalities and at least 100 others injured.[239] It has since been known as the "Green Ramp disaster".[240]
  • On 10 March 1997 at 1330 hrs, an Indonesian Air Force F-16A Block 15 #TS-1607 from the 3rd Squadron crashed at the Halim AB in Jakarta while attempting to land during bad weather; it crashed into the landing lights for the runway, killing the pilot, Captain Dwi Sasongko of the local demonstration team 'Blue Eagle'.[241]
  • On 15 September 2003, a USAF Thunderbirds F-16C crashed during an air show at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. Captain Christopher Stricklin attempted a "Split S" maneuver based on an incorrect mean-sea-level altitude of the airfield. Climbing to only 1,670 ft (510 m) above ground level instead of 2,500 ft (760 m), Stricklin had insufficient altitude to complete the maneuver, but was able to guide the aircraft away from spectators and ejected less than one second before impact. Stricklin survived with only minor injuries; the aircraft was destroyed. USAF procedure for demonstration "Split-S" maneuvers was changed, requiring both pilots and controllers to use above-ground-level (AGL) altitudes.[242][243]
  • On 26 January 2015, a Greek F-16D crashed while performing a NATO training exercise in Albacete, Spain. Both crew members and nine French soldiers on the ground died when it crashed in the flight-line, destroying or damaging two Italian AMXs, two French Alpha jets, and one French Mirage 2000.[244][245]
  • On 16 April 2015, an Indonesian Air Force F-16 Block 25 #TS-1643 from the 3rd Squadron caught fire and burnt prior to taking off at Halim Perdanakusuma AFB, Jakarta. The pilot escaped.[246]
  • On 24 June 2015, an Indonesian Air Force F-16A Block 15 # TS-1609 from the 3rd Squadron crashed into the runway at Iswahyudi AFB in East Java, Indonesia. The pilot recovered and the aircraft was repaired.[247]
  • On 7 July 2015, an F-16CJ collided with a Cessna 150M over Moncks Corner, South Carolina, U.S. The pilot of the F-16 ejected safely, but both people in the Cessna were killed.[248]
  • On 11 October 2018, an F-16 MLU from the 2nd Tactical Wing of the Belgian Air Component, on the apron at Florennes Air Station, was hit by a gun burst from a nearby F-16, whose cannon was fired inadvertently during maintenance. The aircraft caught fire and was burned to the ground, while two other F-16s were damaged and two maintenance personnel were treated for aural trauma.[249]
  • On 1 July 2021, an F-16 MLU of the Belgian Air Component crashed into a building while on the ground at Leeuwarden Air Base in The Netherlands. The pilot ejected.[250]

Aircraft on display[edit]

Belgium[edit]

F-16A

Germany[edit]

F-16A

Israel[edit]

F-16A

Indonesia[edit]

F-16C

Japan[edit]

F-16A

Portugal[edit]

F-16A

The Netherlands[edit]

F-16A
  • J-215 of the RNLAF on display at the National Military museum at former airbase Soesterberg.[259]
  • J-228 of the RNLAF on pylon display at the Leeuwarden Airbase Main Gate entry road.[260]
  • J-240 of the RNLAF on pylon display past the Volkel Airbase Main Gate on the entry road.[261]
  • J-246 of the RNLAF on pylon display on the N264 / Zeelandsedijk roundabout near the Volkel Airbase Main Gate entry.[262]

Serbia[edit]

F-16CG

Thailand[edit]

F-16A

Turkey[edit]

F-16C

United States[edit]

YF-16
YF-16A (Full-Scale Development)
  • 75-0745 – Used as a traveling exhibit, on loan from the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio[271]
  • 75-0746 – Pylon-mounted gate guard, McEntire Air National Guard Base, South Carolina[272]
  • 75-0748 – Cadet Area Terrazzo, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado[273]
  • 75-0750 – Experimental Aircraft Display Hangar, National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio[274]
YF-16B (FSD)
F-16A
  • 78-0001 – Langley AFB Memorial Park, Langley AFB, Virginia. First production model F-16A delivered to USAF.[277]
  • 78-0005 – 162d Fighter Wing Park, Tucson Air National Guard Base, Arizona[278]
  • 78-0025 – Valiant Air Command Warbird Museum, Titusville, FL. Formerly a gate guard, Burlington Air National Guard Base, Vermont[279]
  • 78-0042 – Gate guard, Montgomery Air National Guard Base/Dannelly Field, Alabama[280]
  • 78-0052 – Eielson AFB Heritage Park, Eielson AFB, Alaska[281]
  • 78-0059 – Selfridge Military Air Museum and Air Park, Selfridge ANGB, Michigan[282]
  • 78-0061 - Highland Home "Flying Squadron" High School Football Field, Highland Home, Alabama[283]
  • 78-0065 – 388th Fighter Wing and 419th Fighter Wing combined Headquarters, Hill AFB, Utah[284]
  • 78-0066 – On display in Kansas Air National Guard Memorial Park area, McConnell AFB, Kansas[285]
  • 79-0290 – On display at Great Falls Air National Guard Base, Montana.[286]
  • 79-0296 – Gate guard, Jacksonville Air National Guard Base, Florida[287]
  • 79-0307 – On display at Cannon AFB Air Park, Cannon AFB, New Mexico[288]
  • 79-0309 – Base park area adjacent to USAFCENT Headquarters, Shaw AFB, South Carolina. Painted as 20th Fighter Wing F-16C 93–0534. Memorial to Maj Brinson Phillips, 20 FW, killed 19 March 2000 while flying F-16C 93-0534[289]
  • 79-0312 – On pylon display, 8th Street Park, Douglas, Arizona[290]
  • 79-0326 – Gate guard, Homestead Air Reserve Base, Florida[291]
  • 79-0327 – Pedestal mounted memorial, Luke AFB, Arizona. Painted in 302d Fighter Squadron markings, to include World War IITuskegee Airmen "Red Tails" empennage[292]
  • 79-0334 – USS Alabama
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon
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F-16 Take off distance

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[email protected]

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Sep 25, 1997, 10:00:00 AM9/25/97

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Hi,

I am interested in finding out the minimum take off run for a F-16 A/B
(Block 15). How can I find this?

Please reply by email : [email protected]

Thanks,
Ramana

-------------------==== Posted via Deja News ====-----------------------
http://www.dejanews.com/ Search, Read, Post to Usenet

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José Barahona da Fonseca

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to [email protected]

Hi,

The thrust of F-16 engine is about 79.2kN, it weights about 7000Kg so
we will have that the acceleration is a=79.2/7*9.81=111 m/s^2. Now we
must know the minimum takeoff speed, say 250Km/h (I'm not sure, It's
only a guess). So the time to takeoff will be, neglecting the Total drag
which is much less than 79.2kN, t=250/3.6/111=0.626 s and the takeoff
distance will be 1/2 a t^2=22 meters(!!)...the real value is a litlle
bit greater than 22 meters because the Total Drag of F-16 increases
with V^2: Drag(V)=1/2 rho Sx Cd V^2+InducedDrag(V), rho=1.2256
Kg/m^3...to calculate the exact takeoff distance we must solve a
complicated differential equation: dv/dt=a-gsin alpha-Drag(v)/m.

To obtain the landing distance we must solve a similar differential
equation: dv/dt=amin+gsin alpha-Drag(v) where alpha is the AOA.

BTW I'm interested to calculate the total drag of F-16 and A-7 at
subsonic and supersonic speeds to estimate the cost of
a given F-16 or A-7 flight to help FAP(Portuguese Air Force)
on flight planning and budget estimations. If you can help me
or know somebody that can help me, please tell me!

Thank you for your attention.

Bye. Adeus! Chau!

Zé Fonseca
Lisboa, Portugal.
PS: Please reply. You are welcome!

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Donny CHAN

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Oct 6, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/6/97

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In article <[email protected]>, [email protected]
(Fubar2X) wrote:
]The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and
]the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield
]an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. If the takeoff speed is around 300 km/hr (
]162 knots ), the time to takeoff would be 15.4 sec and the takeoff distance
]640 m, or about 2100 ft. My _Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft_ says
]the takeoff roll at MTOW is around 2500 ft, so this is pretty close.

Fascinating. Just wondering: By how much does the catapult of a carrier
typically reduce the take-off distance of an aircraft?

--

"Otomodati to site yone. Sore dattara, watasi mo
Sinzyou-san no koto suki yo." - Nakamoto Sizuka,
Sotugyou Crossworld SS (1997)

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José Barahona da Fonseca

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In article <[email protected]>,


You are right, Fubar2X had considered Force= weight acceleration
but the right equation is Force= weight/g acceleration...
so with Fubar2X data we will have, considering a takeoff speed
of 300Km/h,

a=104/19.2 g=5.4 g m/s^2

t=300/3.6/(5.4 g)=1.57 secs

take off distance=0.5 a t^2=66m, that is about 1/10 of Fubar2X value.

With catapult I think we will have a takeoff distance of about 40m
or less than 40m!

Thank you for your attention.

Bye. Adeus! Chau!

Zé Fonseca
Lisboa, Portugal.
PS: Please reply. You're welcome!

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Phil and Mia Waters

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Oct 6, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/6/97

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to Donny CHAN


Donny CHAN wrote:
>
> In article <[email protected]>, [email protected]
> (Fubar2X) wrote:
> ]The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and
> ]the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield
> ]an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. If the takeoff speed is around 300 km/hr (
> ]162 knots ), the time to takeoff would be 15.4 sec and the takeoff distance
> ]640 m, or about 2100 ft. My _Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft_ says
> ]the takeoff roll at MTOW is around 2500 ft, so this is pretty close.
>
> Fascinating. Just wondering: By how much does the catapult of a carrier
> typically reduce the take-off distance of an aircraft?
>
> --
>
> "Otomodati to site yone. Sore dattara, watasi mo
> Sinzyou-san no koto suki yo." - Nakamoto Sizuka,
> Sotugyou Crossworld SS (1997)

You are forgetting drag which the thrust musy overcome.
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José Barahona da Fonseca

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Hi again,

I forgot to say that I had neglected the Total Drag of F-16 which is
given by:

Drag(V)=1/2 rho Cd Sx V^2 + InducedDrag(V) + WaveDrag(V)

where rho=1.2256 Kg/m^3

and so the real takeoff distance is a little bit greater than 66m. The
exact F-16 takeoff distance is obtained through the solution of the
following complicated differential equation:

dv/dt=a-Drag(v)/mF16,

where mF16=19200/g

and integrating between v=0 and v=300/3.6 m/s.

Let's calculate a pessimistic estimation of Take off distance. I will
assume that L/D=8, so inducedDrag(v)=19200/8 and WaveDrag(v) is
negligible, Cd=0.15 and Sx=12 m^2, so

a'=(104,000-19,200/8-0.5 1.2256 12 (300/3.6)^2)/19,200 g=2.63 g

t'=300/3.6/(2.63 g)=3.23 secs

pessimistic takeoff distance estimation=0.5 a' t'^2=134 meters(!).

The exact value is somewhere between 66 and 134 meters, perhaps
(66+134)/2=100 meters!

Thank you for your attention.

Bye. Adeus! Chau!

Zé Fonseca
Lisboa, Portugal.
PS: Please reply. You are welcome!

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José Barahona da Fonseca

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Fubar2X wrote:


>
> José Barahona da Fonseca <[email protected]> writes:
>
> >The thrust of F-16 engine is about 79.2kN, it weights about 7000Kg so
> >we will have that the acceleration is a=79.2/7*9.81=111 m/s^2. Now we
> >must know the minimum takeoff speed, say 250Km/h (I'm not sure, It's
> >only a guess). So the time to takeoff will be, neglecting the Total drag
> >which is much less than 79.2kN, t=250/3.6/111=0.626 s and the takeoff
> >distance will be 1/2 a t^2=22 meters(!!)...the real value is a litlle
> >bit greater than 22 meters because the Total Drag of F-16 increases
> >with V^2: Drag(V)=1/2 rho Sx Cd V^2+InducedDrag(V), rho=1.2256
> >Kg/m^3...to calculate the exact takeoff distance we must solve a
> >complicated differential equation: dv/dt=a-gsin alpha-Drag(v)/m.
>

> The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and
> the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield
> an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. If the takeoff speed is around 300 km/hr (
> 162 knots ), the time to takeoff would be 15.4 sec and the takeoff distance
> 640 m, or about 2100 ft. My _Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft_ says
> the takeoff roll at MTOW is around 2500 ft, so this is pretty close.
>

> Your figure of 79.2 kN is more like military power ( about 17,800 pounds
> of thrust ), and no F-16 weighs 7000 kg at takeoff ( that's more like the
> empty weight ). Even so, using your numbers would predict an acceleration
> of 79.2 / 7= 11.31 m/s^2, or just a little over 1 g, as you'd expect (
> 17,800 pounds thrust vs 15,400 pounds weight ). The time to 250 km/hr then
> would be 6.14 sec, and the takeoff roll 213 m, or about 700 ft.
>
> You went wrong in your numbers by inserting the factor of 9.81 into the
> equation for acceleration, so your acceleration was a factor of 9.81 too
> high ( 111 m/s^2 is more than 11 g ). This resulted in your takeoff time
> and roll being too small by the same factor of 9.81.
>
> Fubar2X

Hi,

You are wrong: Force= Mass Acceleration

and weight=Mass g so

Force= weight/g Acceleration.

I think a weight of about 9000Kg for a litlle flight is
a realistic figure for FAP F-16s.

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Fubar2X

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Oct 7, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/7/97

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José Barahona da Fonseca <[email protected]> writes:

>You are right, Fubar2X had considered Force= weight acceleration
>but the right equation is Force= weight/g acceleration...
>so with Fubar2X data we will have, considering a takeoff speed
>of 300Km/h,
>
>a=104/19.2 g=5.4 g m/s^2
>
>t=300/3.6/(5.4 g)=1.57 secs
>
>take off distance=0.5 a t^2=66m, that is about 1/10 of Fubar2X value.


You're again confused about units here. You know that T=ma, and W=mg (
where T=thrust, m=mass, a =acceleration, W=weight, and g=gravitational
acceleration ). We can rearrange this to ( a / g ) = ( T / W ), i.e. the
acceleration in g's is equal to the thrust to weight ratio. Hence if the
thrust and weight are in the SAME units ( kilograms, pounds, or newtons )
the resulting ratio is the acceleration in g's.

So, if you use newtons for the thrust ( 104,000 newtons ) and weight (
19,200 kilograms = 188,350 newtons ), the thrust to weight ratio is 0.55,
so the plane accelerates at 0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2. If you want to use
kilograms, the thrust is 10,600 kilograms and the weight 19,200 kilograms,
so the acceleration is again 0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2. In pounds, the thrust is
23,370 pounds and the weight 42,300 pounds, so the acceleration is again
0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2.

The acceleration is 5.42 m/s^2, the takeoff time is 15.4 sec, and the
takeoff roll 640 m, or 2100 feet. This neglects the drag on the plane. If
the average drag is around 3750 pounds, the net acceleration is 0.46 g =
4.55 m/s^2, the takeoff time 18.3 sec, and the takeoff roll about 763 m, or
2500 feet, in agreement with the book values ( obviously I just chose the
drag value to get this to work out ).


Fubar2X

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Maury Markowitz

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Oct 7, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/7/97

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In article <[email protected]>, [email protected]:

> > ]The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and


> > ]the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield
> > ]an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. If the takeoff speed is around 300 km/hr (
> > ]162 knots ), the time to takeoff would be 15.4 sec and the takeoff distance
> > ]640 m, or about 2100 ft. My _Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft_ says
> > ]the takeoff roll at MTOW is around 2500 ft, so this is pretty close.

The only considerations that would seem to be obvious here would be
rolling resistance, air drag, and

> You are right, Fubar2X had considered Force= weight acceleration
> but the right equation is Force= weight/g acceleration...

Airplane mass is what was posted, and the calculation appears to be
correct to me - you make a similar "mistake" when you supply engine thrust
in kN, but then convert the mass in kg via division (which doesn't make
any sense). Given F=ma, you converted the mass into weight, and were
attempting a F=Fa, which is incorrect. If you do wish to use the weight
of the plane you should look at a momentum transfer instead (after all,
it's really F = m (dP/dt)

You'll notice posters from the US tend to use the terms weight and mass
interchangably. I personally believe this is because the weight measure
is also used as a mass measure in many cases (ie, I've seen the term
"pounds-mass" in many spaceflight references) and the unit of weight, the
"slug", is rarely if ever used.

Maury

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Maury Markowitz

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Oct 7, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/7/97

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In article <[email protected]>, [email protected]
(Maury Markowitz) wrote:

> is also used as a mass measure in many cases (ie, I've seen the term
> "pounds-mass" in many spaceflight references) and the unit of weight, the
> "slug", is rarely if ever used.

Ooops, the slug is a unit of mass of course.

Maury

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Gene Nygaard

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Oct 7, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/7/97

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In article <[email protected]>,


[email protected] (Fubar2X) wrote:
>
> José Barahona da Fonseca <[email protected]> writes:
>

> >You are right, Fubar2X had considered Force= weight acceleration
> >but the right equation is Force= weight/g acceleration...

> >so with Fubar2X data we will have, considering a takeoff speed
> >of 300Km/h,
> >
> >a=104/19.2 g=5.4 g m/s^2
> >
> >t=300/3.6/(5.4 g)=1.57 secs
> >
> >take off distance=0.5 a t^2=66m, that is about 1/10 of Fubar2X value.
>
> You're again confused about units here. You know that T=ma, and W=mg (
> where T=thrust, m=mass, a =acceleration, W=weight, and g=gravitational
> acceleration ). We can rearrange this to ( a / g ) = ( T / W ), i.e. the
> acceleration in g's is equal to the thrust to weight ratio. Hence if the
> thrust and weight are in the SAME units ( kilograms, pounds, or newtons )
> the resulting ratio is the acceleration in g's.
>
> So, if you use newtons for the thrust ( 104,000 newtons ) and weight (
> 19,200 kilograms = 188,350 newtons ), the thrust to weight ratio is 0.55,
> so the plane accelerates at 0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2. If you want to use
> kilograms, the thrust is 10,600 kilograms and the weight 19,200 kilograms,
> so the acceleration is again 0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2. In pounds, the thrust is
> 23,370 pounds and the weight 42,300 pounds, so the acceleration is again
> 0.55 g = 5.42 m/s^2.

This is a stupid, ridiculous, and confusing example. "Weight" in this
context means mass, plain and simple. Force is mass times acceleration.
If you already have the thrust in newtons and the mass in kilograms, why
go to all the trouble of converting one to the other and getting an
unnecessary acceleration of gravity factor involved in your calculations.
Why multiply or divide one by the acceleration of gravity, so that you
can get the acceleration of the plane as a multiple of the acceleration
of gravity, then multiply by the acceleration of gravity again to get the
acceleration in meters per second squared? What happens when you divide
104,000 newtons by 19,200 kilograms? A newton is a kilogram meter per
second squared, so the answer is 5.42 m/s^2, and you don't need to know
the acceleration of gravity to get it.

Gene Nygaard
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Gene_Nygaard/weight.htm

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Fubar2X

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Oct 8, 1997, 10:00:00 AM10/8/97

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[email protected](Gene Nygaard) writes:

> < Snip > What happens when you divide


>104,000 newtons by 19,200 kilograms? A newton is a kilogram meter per
>second squared, so the answer is 5.42 m/s^2, and you don't need to know
>the acceleration of gravity to get it.


Exactly, but this is exactly what José Barahona da Fonseca refuses to
believe. He thinks when you divide 104,000 newtons by 19,200 kilograms you
get 5.42 g, not 5.42 m/sec^2. The first two sentences of my first post were :

>The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and
>the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield

>an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. < Snip >

but so far this hasn't sunk in. Hence, the "stupid, ridiculous, and
confusing example" was an effort to show him how you actually calculate the
acceleration in g's. It apparently hasn't worked either.


Fubar2X

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Gene Nygaard

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In article <[email protected]>,


[email protected] (Fubar2X) wrote:
>
>
> Exactly, but this is exactly what José Barahona da Fonseca refuses to
> believe. He thinks when you divide 104,000 newtons by 19,200 kilograms you
> get 5.42 g, not 5.42 m/sec^2. The first two sentences of my first post were :
>
> >The actual thrust of a PW F100-P-220 is about 104 kN in afterburner, and
> >the maximum takeoff weight of a F-16C is about 19,200 kg. This would yield
> >an acceleration of 5.42 m/s^2. < Snip >
>
> but so far this hasn't sunk in. Hence, the "stupid, ridiculous, and
> confusing example" was an effort to show him how you actually calculate the
> acceleration in g's. It apparently hasn't worked either.
>
> Fubar2X

Ah, now I see why you were doing it in such a complicated way. I knew
that your calculations were correct and those of José Barahona da Fonseca
were wrong, but I didn't understand why you were going though the
calculation of g's.

Gene Nygaard

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Tarver Engineering

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On Tue, 07 Oct 1997 15:41:41 -0500, [email protected](Maury
Markowitz) wrote:

<snip>

> You'll notice posters from the US tend to use the terms weight and mass
>interchangably. I personally believe this is because the weight measure

>is also used as a mass measure in many cases (ie, I've seen the term
>"pounds-mass" in many spaceflight references) and the unit of weight, the
>"slug", is rarely if ever used.

Slug mass was very useful when the horsepower is the unit of power.

John

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Maury Markowitz

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In article <[email protected]>, [email protected](Gene
Nygaard) wrote:

> This is a stupid, ridiculous, and confusing example. "Weight" in this
> context means mass, plain and simple.

Before we start yelling at each other, please keep in mind that the
"standard" definition of weight means something rather different depending
on whether you learned metric or imperial measures as a child. I'm pretty
sure that's where this confusion came from.

> Force is mass times acceleration.

Actually in Newtonian terms it's defined as a change in momentum, which
can be simplified out in linear cases (ie, if the mass is constant and the
acceleration linear).

Maury

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Major improvements also came with the introduction of the F-16C/D encompassing the Block 25, Block 30/32, and Block 40/42 series. Upgrades to this F-16 batch included new engines, a better radar with precision night attack capability, and compatibility with an increasingly sophisticated array of smart weapons. The final production models purchased by the US are the Block 50/52 with further improvements to perform suppression of enemy air defense missions.

Though no longer in production for the US, the F-16 continues to evolve through export models. The latest of these is the F-16E/F Block 60 built for the United Arab Emirates. This series features an AESA radar as well as a considerably increased fuel capacity for greater range and endurance.

Its versatility, capability, and relatively low cost have made the F-16 the most widely built Western fighter since the F-86. Over 4,000 have been built to date for 24 countries. The F-16 has seen combat with several of these customers, most notably in the Middle East where the Falcon has fought over Lebanon and Iraq. Pakistan's F-16 fleet has also been busy having shot down several Soviet planes during the 1980s Afghan War and frequently engaging Indian aircraft.

Continuing production and ongoing upgrade efforts ensure the F-16 will serve well into the 21st century. The US plans to keep its fleet operational until 2025 when the F-16 is due to be fully replaced by the F-35. Most other F-16 customers are also expected to switch to the F-35 over the next two decades.

Data below for F-16C/D
Last modified 06 April 2011


HISTORY:
First Flight (YF-16) 2 February 1974
(F-16A) 8 December 1976
(F-16B) 8 August 1977
Service Entry 17 August 1978
Retirement USAF planned for 2025

CREW: (F-16A/C) one: pilot
(F-16B/D) two: pilot, instructor

COST: (F-16A/B) $14.6 million [1998$]
(F-16C/D) $18.8 million [1998$]

DIMENSIONS:
Length 49.33 ft (15.03 m)
Wingspan 31.00 ft (9.45 m)
Height 16.33 ft (5.09 m)

WING:
Root Airfoil Section NACA 64A204
Tip Airfoil Section NACA 64A204
Area 300.0 ft� (27.88 m�)
Aspect Ratio 3.20
Sweepback Angle 40� at leading edge
Control Surface Areasflaperons: 62.64 ft� (5.82 m�)
leading-edge slats: 73.42 ft� (6.82 m�)
Max Deflection Anglesflaperons: unknown
leading-edge slats: unknown

TAIL:
Tailplane Span 18.29 ft (5.57 m)
Tailplane Area 63.7 ft� (5.92 m�)
Tailfin Area 43.1 ft� (4.00 m�) including dorsal and ventral surfaces
Control Surface Areasslab tailplane: 63.7 ft� (5.92 m�)
rudder: 11.65 ft� (1.08 m�)

UNDERCARRIAGE:
Type Retractable tricycle with two main gear and single steerable nose gear
Main Gear Single wheel per unit, tire size 27.75 x 8.75-14.5
Nose Gear Single wheel per unit, tire size 18 x 5.7-8
Wheel Track 7.79 ft (2.37 m)
Wheel Base 13.17 ft (4.0 m)

WEIGHTS & LOADINGS:
Empty (F-16A) 15,585 lb (7,070 kg)
(F-16B) 16,260 lb (7,365 kg)
(F-16C) 18,725 lb (8,495 kg)
Normal Takeoff 27,100 lb (12,295 kg)
Maximum Takeoff (F-16A) 35,400 lb (16,055 kg)
(F-16C) 42,300 lb (19,185 kg)
Maximum Landing unknown
Internal Fuel Capacity (F-16A) 6,970 lb (3,160 kg)
(F-16B) 5,785 lb (2,625 kg)
(F-16C) 7,160 lb (3,250 kg) in 1,055 gal (3,985 L) fuselage and wing tanks
(F-16D) 5,835 lb (3,255 kg) in 870 gal (3,295 L) fuselage and wing tanks
External Fuel Capacity 6,950 lb (3,160 kg) in two 370 gal (1,400 L) and one 300 gal (1,135 L) tanks
8,015 lb (3,645 kg) in two 600 gal (2,270 L) tanks
Maximum Payload 17,200 lb (7,800 kg) [normal]
20,450 lb (9,275 kg) [theoretical limit]
Wing Loading 73.0 lb/ft� (356.0 kg/m�) at 22,000 lb (9,980 kg)
110.0 lb/ft� (537.0 kg/m�) at 33,000 lb (14,970 kg)
Thrust/Weight Ratio (GE F110) 1.09
(PW F100) 0.90

PROPULSION:
Powerplant one General Electric F110-GE-100 or
one Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 afterburning turbofan
Engine Rating 1 x 17,800 lb (79.2 kN)
1 x 29,100 lb (129.4 kN) with afterburner
Engine Intakes One fixed geometry chin inlet
Fuel Type JP-8

PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed
(at altitude)
1,350 mph (2,175 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m), Mach 2.05
Max Level Speed
(at sea level)
915 mph (1,460 km/h), Mach 1.2
Cruise Speed unknown
Takeoff Speed unknown
Landing Speed unknown
Takeoff Distance (F-16A) 1,750 ft (535 m) with 4,000 lb (1,815 kg) external load
Landing Distance (F-16A) 2,650 ft (810 m) with 4,000 lb (1,815 kg) external load
Maximum Climb Rate 50,000 ft (15,239 m) / min
Service Ceiling 50,000 ft (15,239 m)
Combat Radius 865 nmi (1,605 km) with two AIM-9, two AIM-120, two 370-gal and one 300-gal fuel tanks
675 nmi (1,255 km) with two Mk-84, two AIM-9 or AIM-120, two 370-gal and one 300-gal fuel tanks
Ferry Range 2,275 nmi (4,215 km) with two 600-gal and one 300-gal fuel tanks
Endurance unknown
g-Limits +9.0 / -3.0

SYSTEMS:
Crew Escape McDonnell Douglas ACES II zero-zero ejection seat
Radar (F-16A/B) Westinghouse AN/APG-66 pulse-Doppler fire-control radar
(F-16C/D) Northrop Grumman AN/APG-68 multi-mode digital fire control radar
(F-16E/F) Northrop Grumman AN/APG-80 AESA radar
Avionics Dual 1553B databuses, Honeywell air data computer, modular mission computer (MMC), Litton LN-39 or LN-93 or Honeywell H-523 inertial navigation unit, Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-118 tactical air navigation system, Gould AN/APN-232 radar altimeter, GEC-Marconi wide angle holographic head up display (HUD) system
Self-protection Dalmo Victor AN/ALR-69 or Loral AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver, Westinghouse AN/ALQ-131 or AN/ALQ-184 jamming pod, AN/ALQ-126B electronic countermeasures system
Flight Controls Four channel digital fly-by-wire
In-Flight Refueling Boom receptacle on fuselage centerline
Airbrakes Twin units ahead of tailplane with 60� of motion

COMPOSITION:
  • Aluminum: majority of structure composed of aluminum alloys
  • Honeycomb core: used on leading edge flaps, tailplane leading edges, and the twin ventral fins
  • Graphite/epoxy: used on fin and taileron skins

  • ARMAMENT:
    View a high-quality graphic of F-16 weapons load
    Gun one 20-mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon (511 rds)
    Stations seven to nine external hardpoints and two wingtip rails
    Air-to-Air Missile AIM-7 Sparrow/Skyflash, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, Magic II, MICA, Python 3
    Air-to-Surface Missile AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-119 Penguin, Wasp, AS.30L
    Bomb B43 nuclear, GBU-10/12/24 Paveway laser-guided, GBU-15, Mk 82/83/84 GP, BLU-109, Mk 20 Rockeye, BLU-107 Durandal, CBU-52/58/71/87/89/97 cluster, BL-755, Mk 36 Destructor
    Other ECM pods, LANTIRN pod, navigation pods, targeting pods, rocket pods, gun pods, autonomous free-flight dispenser system, up to four MALD decoys

    VARIANTS:
    YF-16 Prototypes tested under the Light Weight Fighter program; 2 built
    F-16 FSD Full Scale Development aicraft used as prototypes and test aircraft; 6 single-seat and 2 two-seat models built
    F-16A Production fighter model including Blocks 1 through 20; 674 built for USAF
    F-16B Two-seat trainer based on the F-16A; 121 built for USAF
    Block 1/5/10 Early production blocks of the F-16A/B with minor structural differences between them; 94 Block 1, 197 Block 5, and 312 Block 10 planes built
    Block 15 Updated F-16A/B series adding two pylons under the wing, new communication systems, and larger horizontal stabilizers; 983 built
    Block 15 OCU Operational Capability Upgrade introducing an updated engine, increased takeoff weight, cockpit improvements, enhanced avionics, and compatibility with Maverick, Penguin and AMRAAM missiles; 214 built and some Block 10 airframes converted
    F-16 ADF Air Defense Fighter based on the Block 15 but designed for US Air National Guard units with an upgraded radar and improved avionics; 270 converted
    Block 20 F-16A/B Block 15 OCU planes purchased by Taiwan but updated with a new radar, better mission computers, and incorporating most of the Block 50/52 improvements; 150 converted
    F-16/79 Proposed reduced-cost, reduced-capability version of the F-16A/B intended for export, marketed to several countries but a lack of orders led to the decision to sell the standard F-16 abroad; 1 built
    F-16A(R) F-16A aircraft of the Netherlands and Belgium modified to carry tactical reconnaissance pods
    RF-16A F-16A aircraft of Denmark modified to carry reconnaissance pods; 10 converted
    F-16 MLU
    F-16AM & F-16BM
    Series of Mid Life Update programs to upgrade the software and avionics of F-16A/B airframes bringing them to a near F-16C/D Block 50/52 standard and applied to the fleets of Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, and Portugal
    A-16 Proposed close air support derivative with structural improvements to carry a 30-mm cannon and 7.62-mm minigun pods on the wing developed as a replacement for the A-10; 2 prototypes converted from Block 15 airframes
    F/A-16 or F-16CAS F-16A/B Block 10 airframes modified for Close Air Support by mounting a 30-mm GAU-13 cannon in a centerline pod but the vibrations from the cannon were so severe as to make aiming impractical; 24 converted
    F-16C Upgraded one-seat fighter model with improved ground attack capability provided by a LANTIRN system and new ECM equipment, includes Blocks 25 through 50/52
    F-16D Two-seat trainer based on the F-16C
    Block 25 Introduced a new radar with precision night-attack capability as well as an enhanced engine, new computer systems, cockpit displays, and other avionics improvements; 209 built
    Block 30/32 Block 30 carries the General Electric F110 engine while Block 32 is fitted with the Pratt & Whitney F100, introduced the LITENING targeting pod, compatibility with HARM and AMRAAM missiles, and better navigation systems
    F-16C++ Unofficial designation used for the final Block 30/32 aircraft
    F-16 Recce US airframes modified to carry multi-sensor reconnaissance pods on the centerline, usually fitted to Block 25 and 30 aircraft of the Air National Guard
    F-16N & TF-16N Based on the F-16C/D Block 30 models and used by the US Navy for adversary training; 22 one-seat F-16N and 4 two-seat TF-16N built
    Block 40/42 Improved day-night/all-weather attack variants based on the Block 30/32 but compatible with night vision systems, the LANTIRN pod, and GPS weapons like JDAM, JSOW, and WCMD; 615 built
    F-16CG & F-16DG
    Night Falcons
    Unofficial designations for the single-seat and two-seat Block 40/42 aircraft
    Block 50/52 Introduced a new GPS/INS navigation system, updated engines, a helmet-mounted cueing system, and weapon system improvements
    Block 50D/52D Block 50/52 models adapted for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) missions using Shrike or HARM missiles
    F-16CJ & F-16DJ Unofficial designations for the single-seat and two-seat Block 50D/52D aircraft
    F-16HTS Block 50D/52D airframes fitted with HARM Targeting System for full autonomous capability of the HARM missile; over 100 converted
    Block 50/52 Plus Introduced conformal fuel tanks along the upper wing strakes and an enlarged spline for avionics; purchased by Greece, Poland, Pakistan, and Singapore
    KF-16 F-16C/D Block 52 models purchased by South Korea and compatible with Harpoon missiles, built under license by Korean Aerospace Industries; 140 built
    F-16I Sufa Model for Israel based on the Block 50/52 Plus but with removable conformal fuel tanks and Israeli avionics; 102 to be built
    F-16E/F New production model incorporating conformal fuel tanks, an AESA radar, new engines, an enlarged spline for avionics, and other advanced upgrades, purchased by the United Arab Emirates
    GF-16 Ground instruction model used to train maintenance personnel
    F-16/101 Test aircraft modified from the first F-16 FSD airframe and used to evaluate the GE F101 engine for the production F-16
    F-16 CCV Control-Configured Vehicle modified from a YF-16 prototype and used to test advanced control systems; 1 converted
    F-16 AFTI Advanced Fighter Technology Integration aircraft built to expand on the F-16 CCV program and test a new digital flight control system as well as other advanced technologies like a voice controlled sytem and helmet-mounted targeting system, many of the systems tested have become standard on newer fighters; 1 converted from F-16 FSD airframe
    F-16 Agile Falcon Proposed low-cost version of the AFTI model featuring a larger wing and enhanced control systems; cancelled but later inspired Japan's F-2
    NF-16D VISTA Variable Stability Inflight Test Aircraft used to test advanced control systems
    F-16 MATV VISTA airframe modified with a Multi Axis Thrust Vectoring axisymmetric nozzle
    F-16 SFW Swept Forward Wing model proposed to test forward-swept wing technology; not built in favor of the X-29
    F-16XL or F-16E/F Advanced test aircraft modified with a large cranked delta wing and developed as a tactical strike aircraft prototype, the enormous wing held 27 hardpoints and nearly doubled the payload of a standard F-16, the F-16E was to be a production single-seat model and the F-16F a two-seat model but the program was cancelled after the USAF selected the F-15E and the two prototypes were later transferred to NASA for drag-reduction research; 1 single-seat and 1 two-seat models converted from F-16 FSD airframes
    F-16AT Falcon 21 Proposed low-cost alternative to the F-22 based on the F-16XL but with a more conventional wing
    F-16X Falcon 2000 Proposed F-16 variant with a lengthened fuselage and wing similar to the F-22 to nearly double fuel capacity
    F-16U Early proposal to the United Arab Emirates combining features of the F-16XL with the wing of the F-16X; cancelled in favor of the F-16E/F
    F-16 ES Enhanced Strategic model designed as an extended range F-16C/D with conformal tanks and an internal FLIR system to reduce drag, offered to Israel as an alternative to the F-15I and to the United Arab Emirates; 1 prototype converted from a Block 30 airframe
    F-16 GCAS Block 25 airframe modified to test Ground Collision Avoidance System technologies; 1 converted
    F-16 LOAN Low-Observable Asymmetric Nozzle demonstrator that tested a nozzle to reduce radar and infrared cross sections and improve maintenance; 1 converted from F-16C airframe to test technology for the Joint Strike Fighter
    F-16 UCAV Proposal to modify retired F-16 airframes into Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles by increasing the wingspan and fuel capacity for long endurance missions
    F-16 FFD-1 Tailless delta wing configuration proposed for the USAF reconfigurable controls research program
    F-16IN Super Viper Proposed model for India's Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft contract featuring an AESA radar, infrared seach and track system, and electronic warfare systems; 18 would be built in the US and another 108 license built in India
    FS-X or F-2 Fighter loosely based on the F-16 built by Mitsubishi for Japan

    COMBAT HISTORY:

    Iraq - Osirak nuclear reactor strike (Israel, 1981)
    Lebanon Civil War (Israel, 1982)
    Soviet-Afghan War - shot down 3-4 Su-22, 2 MiG-23, 1 Su-25, 1 An-26 (Pakistan, 1986-1988)
    Iraq - Operation Desert Storm (USAF, 1991)
    Iraq - Operation Northern Watch (USAF, 1991-2003)
    Iraq - Operation Southern Watch (USAF, 1991-2003)
    Venezuela Coup (Venezuela, 1992)
    Bosnia - Operation Deliberate Force (USAF, Netherlands, 1995)
    Kosovo - Operation Allied Force (USAF, 1999)
    Kargil War (Pakistan, 1999)
    Israeli-Palestinian conflict (Israel, 2000-present)
    US Homeland Security - Operation Noble Eagle (USAF, 2001-present)
    Afghanistan - Operation Enduring Freedom (USAF, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, 2001-present)
    shot down Indian Searcher-II UAV (Pakistan, 2002)
    Iraq - Operation Iraqi Freedom (USAF, 2003-present)
    Greece-Turkey skirmish (Greece, Turkey, 2006)
    Second Lebanon War (Israel, 2006)
    Syria - nuclear strike (Israel, 2007)
    Gaza Conflict (Israel, 2008-2009)
    Sudan - arms convoy strike (Israel, 2009)
    Libya - Operation Unified Protector / Odyssey Dawn (Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, UAE, USAF, 2011)

    OPERATORS:

    Bahrain, Bahrain Amiri (Royal Bahraini Air Force)
    Belgium, Belgishe Luchtmacht/Force A�rienne Belge (Belgian Air Force)
    Chile, Fuerza A�rea de Chile (Chilean Air Force)
    Denmark, Kongelige Danske Flyvev�bnet (Royal Danish Air Force)
    Egypt, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya il Misriya (Egyptian Air Force)
    Greece, Elliniki Polimiki Aeroporia (Hellenic Air Force)
    Indonesia, Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Udara (Indonesian Air Force)
    Israel, Tsvah Haganah le Israel - Heyl Ha'Avir (Israeli Defence Force - Air Force)
    Italy, Aeronautica Militare Italiana (Italian Air Force)
    Jordan, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya (Royal Jordanian Air Force)
    Morocco, Al Quwwat al Jawiyya al Malakiya Marakishiya (Royal Moroccan Air Force)
    Netherlands, Koninklijke Luchmacht (Royal Netherlands Air Force)
    Norway, Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret (Royal Norwegian Air Force)
    Oman, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman (Royal Oman Air Force)
    Pakistan, Pakistan Fiza'ya (Pakistani Air Force)
    Poland, Polska Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (Polish Air Defense and Aviation Force)
    Portugal, For�a A�rea Portuguesa (Portuguese Air Force)
    Singapore (Republic of Singapore Air Force)
    South Korea, Han-guk Kong Goon (Republic of Korea Air Force)
    Taiwan, Chung-Kuo Kung Chuan (Republic of China Air Force)
    Thailand, Kongtap Agard Thai (Royal Thai Air Force)
    Turkey, T�rk Hava Kuvvetleri (Turkish Air Force)
    United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates Air Force)
    United States (US Air Force)
    United States (US Air Force Reserves)
    United States (US Air National Guard)
    United States (US Navy)
    United States (NASA)
    Venezuela, Fuerza A�rea Venezolana (Venezuelan Air Force)

    3-VIEW DIAGRAM:

    F-16 Fighting Falcon


    SOURCES:
    • Bonds, Ray, ed. The Modern US War Machine: An Encyclopedia of American Military Equipment and Strategy. NY: Military Press, 1987, p. 180-181, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Chant, Christopher and Taylor, Michael J.H. The World's Greatest Aircraft. Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 2006, p. 97, Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Donald, David, ed. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1997, p. 452, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Donald, David and Lake, Jon, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. NY: Barnes & Noble, 2000, p. 237-244, Lockheed (General Dynamics) F-16A/B Fighting Falcon, ADF F-16A/B Block 15, F-16C/D Fighting Falcon, F-16N Fighting Falcon, F-16XL/NF-16D/AFTI/F-16.
    • Gunston, Bill, ed. The Encyclopedia of Modern Warplanes. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1995, p. 123-124, General Dynamics F-16A/C/N Fighting Falcon, F-16B/D Fighting Falcon.
    • Gunston, Bill and Spick, Mike. Modern Air Combat: The Aircraft, Tactics and Weapons Employed in Aerial Combat Today. NY: Crescent Books, 1983, p. 106-107, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Jackson, Robert. The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. London: Paragon Books, 2002, p. 162-163, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Laur, Timothy M. and Llanso, Steven L. Encyclopedia of Modern U.S. Military Weapons. NY: Berkley Books, 1995, p. 88-91, Fighting Falcon (F-16).
    • Kinzey, Bert. F-16 A and B Fighting Falcon: In Detail & Scale. Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, 1982.
    • Miller, David, ed. The Illustrated Directory of Modern American Weapons. London: Salamander Books, 2002, p. 81-93, Lockheed Martin (General Dynamics) F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • M�ller, Claudio. Aircraft of the World. NY: Muddle Puddle Books, 2004, p. 226-227, Lockheed F-16C/D Block 50/52/60 Fighting Falcon.
    • Richardson, Doug. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. NY: Portland House, 1987, p. 137-200, F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Spick, Mike. Brassey's Modern Fighters: The Ultimate Guide to In-Flight Tactics, Technology, Weapons, and Equipment. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 2000, p. 104-109, Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Taylor, Michael. Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1996/1997. London: Brassey's, 1996, p. 131-132, Lockheed Martin (LMTAS) F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • Taylor, Michael J. H. Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London: Brassey's, 1999, p. 116-119, Lockheed Martin (LMTAS) F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    • US Air Force F-16 Fact Sheet
    • US Navy F-16 Fact Sheet
    • Wilson, Jim. Combat: The Great American Warplane. NY: Hearst Books, 2001, p. 68-71, F-16 Fighting Falcon.
    -----------------








    Sours: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/fighter/f16/

    16 distance f takeoff

    Comparison
    Flight data supplied by Dassault
     

    Airfield Operational Capability with two Infrared Missiles @ Sea Level

     

    Minimum Take-off Distance

    Minimum Landing Distance

    Mirage 2000

    1,650 ft. (503m)

    2,000 ft. (610m)

    F16 C

    1,500 ft. (457m)

    3,000 ft. (914m)

    F18 C

    1,700 ft. (518m)

    2,500 ft. (762m)

     

     

     

    Flight Envelope
    Two Infrared Missiles - 50% Internal Fuel - Max Power
    Ceiling @ Mach 1,8

    Mirage 2000

    57,500 ft. (17,526m)

    F16 C

    49,500 ft. (15,088m)

    F 18C

    54,500 ft. (16,612m) @ Mach 1,4

     


     

    Maximum Mach No. @ 36,000 ft (10,973m)

    Mirage 2000

    2,2

    F16 C

    1,9

    F18 C

    1,7+

     


     

    Acceleration from Mach 0.9 @ 36,000 ft.
    Two Infrared Missiles - 50% Internal Fuel - Max Power

     

    Mach reached after 2 minutes

    Mach reached after 3 minutes

    Mirage 2000

    1,85

    2,17

    F16 C

    1,75

    1,86

    F18 C

    1,62

    1,7+

     

     

     

    Combat Manoeuvrability
    Instantaneous turn rate @ 15,000 ft. (4,572m) - Two IR Missiles - 50% Int. Fuel

     

    Mach 0.7

    Mach 0.9

    Mach 1.2

    Mach 1.5

     

    °/sec

    °/sec

    °/sec

    °/sec

    Mirage 2000

    22

    17,5

    13

    10.5

    F16 C

    18

    17.5

    13

    10.5

    F18 C

    18.5

    14.5

    11

    8.5

     

     

     

     

    Combat Fuel Consumption @ Max. Power

     

    Mach 0.5 sea level

    Mach 0.8 15,000 ft

    Mach1.4 36,000ft

     

     

    4,572 m

    10,973 m

     

    kg/min

    kg/min

    kg/min

    Mirage 2000

    360

    275

    230

    F16 C

    415

    310

    260

    F18 C

    495

    380

    300

     

       

     


     

    Structural Limits

    Mirage 2000

    9g (ultimate 13.5g)

    F16 C

    9g

    F18 C

    7.5g (later 9g)

     


     

    Air Superiority Mission - Radius of Action
    Two IR Missiles + Four BVR Missiles + Maximum Tanks
    Combat - 5 Min. @ Max Power - 30,000ft. (9144m) - Mach 0.8
    Tanks dropped prior to combat - Self defence Missiles retained.

    Mirage 2000        2 Magic +4 MICA +3 tanks

    780 nm

    F16 C                  2 AIM9 +4 AMRAAM +3 tanks

    710 nm

    F18 C                  2 AIM9 +4 AMRAAM +3 tanks

    725 nm

     


     

    Air Patrol Loitre time
    Two IR Missiles + Four BVR Missiles + Maximum Tanks
    Operational Loitre @ 93 miles (150 km) - 25,000 ft. (7,620m) - Mach 0.8
    Tanks and Missiles retained

    Mirage 2000

    150 minutes

    F16 C

    145 minutes

    F18 C

    140 minutes

     


     

    Air to Ground Mission Radius of Action
    Hi-Lo-Lo-Hi with 4000 lb (1,814 kg) bomb load + Maximum tanks.
    50 nm dash to and from the target @ 500 ft. (152m)and 550 knots.
    Tanks dropped when empty. Missiles retained.

    Mirage 2000      *eight Mk 82 +two tanks

    640 nm

    F16 C                  eight Mk 82 +one tank

    410 nm

    F18 C                  eight Mk 82 +one tank

    460 nm

     


     

    * Dassault have been somewhat selective with the stated weapon load. If the eight Mk 82 bombs were replaced by two Mk 84(2000 lb) bombs things look quite different. The Mirage 2000 only has three heavy hardpoints and carrying two Mk 84 bombs would mean carrying only one external fuel tank. An enlarged centreline fuel tank with a 2200 litre capacity would be of great benefit.

    Unfortunately Dassault do not specify which F 16 they are referring to. A Block 30 model is considerably lighter than a late model Block 50 with an empty weight of 8853 kg. The Dash 5 has an empty weight of approximately 7900 kg.

    Sours: http://www.mirage-jet.com/COMPAR_1/compar_1.htm
    F-16 Performs Fantastic Touch-And-Go, With Two Rolls

    .

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