Iii corps commander list

Iii corps commander list DEFAULT

Amid turmoil at Fort Hood, post commander removed, denied new role at Fort Bliss

Amid public outcry over a series of homicides and allegations of sexual misconduct at Fort Hood, the U.S. Army on Tuesday announced the removal of the post’s top commander, Maj. Gen Scott Efflandt.

Army officials said Efflandt was supposed to take command of a division at Fort Bliss in El Paso in the near future, but was denied that position as well.

Efflandt had requested a transfer to another post, but was instructed to stay at Fort Hood near Killeen to serve as the deputy commanding general for support.

The Army said in a written statement that he will "assist with the reintegration of III Corps as they return from their mission supporting Operation Inherent Resolve," the military's name for the fight against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria

Gen. Michael X. Garrett, commanding general of U.S. Army Forces Command, says that Maj. Gen. John B. Richardson IV will formally assume duties as deputy commanding general for operations of III Corps and acting senior commander of Fort Hood on Wednesday.

"This previously scheduled change in leadership will enable continuity of command as III Corps returns from its role leading the Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve," the statement said.

Efflandt was repeatedly scrutinized for lack of transparency involving the investigation into the disappearance and death of 20-year-old Spc. Vanessa Guillen at Fort Hood.

A welcome sign can be seen at the entrance of III Corpus and Fort Hood in Kileen.

Guillen was last seen while working at Fort Hood on April 22. Her dismembered remains were found more than three months later near the Leon River in Bell County.

The soldier’s family continuously called for a congressional investigation into Fort Hood’s handling of the case, saying Efflandt and others failed to property search for the missing soldier, investigate claims Guillen was sexually harassed by fellow soldiers, or properly question who Guillen’s family believed was responsible for her death.

Authorities think Spc. Aaron David Robinson, whom the family accused of sexually harassing Guillen, killed her while they worked in an army weapons room on post.

Robinson died July 1 after shooting himself when investigators confronted him, Killeen police have said.

While U.S. Army officials say no substantive evidence proves Guillen was sexually harassed, the family’s allegations led to the viral hashtag #IAmVanessaGuillen, which inspired former and active service members to share stories of sexual misconduct in the military.

More:Where are the Black officers? US Army shows diversity in its ranks but few promotions to the top

Some, like 23-year-old Elder Fernandes of Fort Hood, was even moved to formally report his claims of sexual abuse to his command, according Natalie Khawam, the attorney for both Guillen’s and Fernandes’ families.

Fernandes’ body was found last week hanging from a tree in Temple, which sparked further controversy involving Fort Hood’s handling of mental health and sexual misconduct cases.

Additionally, a handful of other soldiers were found dead off-post in recent months. Authorities say foul play is suspected in four of those cases.

With Maj. Gen. Efflandt remaining at Fort Hood, the Army will announce the name of a new commander for the 1st Armored Division, which Efflandt had previously been designated to lead. That announcement is expected in the coming days.

The Army also announced that Garrett will appoint Gen. John Murray, commanding general of Army Futures Command and one of the branch’s most senior commanders, to lead an in-depth investigation into chain-of-command actions related to Spc. Vanessa Guillen.

An independent investigation by a five-member civilian group is underway at Fort Hood for the next two weeks. The team has been tasked with reviewing a wide range of topics and concerns.

Gen. Murray will roll those efforts into a more complete and comprehensive investigation that will delve into all activities and levels of leadership, the statement said Tuesday.

Murray’s investigation, which will be conducted under the provisions of Army Regulation 15-6, is separate from the independent civilian review of Fort Hood.

Sours: https://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/2020/09/01/fort-hood-post-commander-removed-denied-new-role-fort-bliss/5686597002/

The Army Friday named a new III Corps and Fort Hood commander to succeed Lt. Gen. Paul E. Funk II, who will become commanding general of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command.

Maj. Gen. Pat White will take over leadership of the post from Funk during a change of command ceremony on June 5.

He most recently served as director of operations, United States European Command.

White and his wife, Emma, moved to Fort Hood from Stuttgart, Germany, this month, Fort Hood said.

Over the course of his three-decade career, White has deployed to Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and Inherent Resolve, Fort Hood said.

From July 2017 through March 2018, while commanding the 1st Armored Division, White led ground operations in Baghdad during the final defeat of ISIS in Iraq, Fort Hood said.

His headquarters reported to III Corps and Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve.

In March The U.S. Senate confirmed Funk’s promotion to the rank of general and his assignment as commanding general of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Va.

Funk, the son of a former Fort Hood commander, signed his assumption of command orders in March 2017 as he took over command of III Corps.

Funk and his family have a long history with Fort Hood and the other units assigned to III Corps, including assignments to Fort Bliss, Texas; Fort Carson, Colorado; and Fort Riley, Kansas.

His father, retired Lt. Gen. Paul “Butch” Funk, commanded III Corps and Fort Hood in the 1990s.

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Army fires several Fort Hood leaders, including a two-star, following probe triggered by several deaths at the base

In  a March 19, 2020 photo, Maj. Gen. Scott Efflandt, III Corps and Fort Hood Deputy Commander, speaks during a virtual town hall about the installation's response to the coronavirus outbreak. Efflandt was fired on December 8, 2020, in the wake of an investigation of conditions at Fort Hood.

In a March 19, 2020 photo, Maj. Gen. Scott Efflandt, III Corps and Fort Hood Deputy Commander, speaks during a virtual town hall about the installation's response to the coronavirus outbreak. Efflandt was fired on December 8, 2020, in the wake of an investigation of conditions at Fort Hood. (Brandy Cruz/U.S. Army)

In  a March 19, 2020 photo, Maj. Gen. Scott Efflandt, III Corps and Fort Hood Deputy Commander, speaks during a virtual town hall about the installation's response to the coronavirus outbreak. Efflandt was fired on December 8, 2020, in the wake of an investigation of conditions at Fort Hood.

In a March 19, 2020 photo, Maj. Gen. Scott Efflandt, III Corps and Fort Hood Deputy Commander, speaks during a virtual town hall about the installation's response to the coronavirus outbreak. Efflandt was fired on December 8, 2020, in the wake of an investigation of conditions at Fort Hood. (Brandy Cruz/U.S. Army)

Lt. Gen. Pat White, commander of III Corps and Fort Hood, addresses the findings of an independent civilian-led report into the climate and culture of Fort Hood during a news conference Tuesday. White said he takes ownership of the findings and has already begun to take action to improve conditions for soldiers on the base.

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Lt. Gen. Pat White, commander of III Corps and Fort Hood, addresses the findings of an independent civilian-led report into the climate and culture of Fort Hood during a news conference Tuesday. White said he takes ownership of the findings and has already begun to take action to improve conditions for soldiers on the base. (Rose L. Thayer/Stars and Stripes)

This story has been updated.

WASHINGTON — Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy said Tuesday that he had relieved or suspended 14 Army leaders at Fort Hood including a two-star general as a result of a probe into the command climate at the Texas installation launched amid a rash of deaths among soldiers.

“I have determined the issues at Fort Hood are directly related to leadership failures,” McCarthy said at the Pentagon. “Leaders drive culture, and are responsible for everything the unit does or does not happen to do. I am gravely disappointed that leaders failed to effectively create a climate that treated all soldiers with dignity and respect.”

Maj. Gen. Scott Efflandt was the highest ranking soldier fired for his role in the Fort Hood problems. The leaders of the Fort Hood-based 3rd Cavalry Regiment, its commander Col. Ralph Overland and top enlisted soldier Command Sgt. Maj. Bradley Knapp, were also fired, McCarthy said.

The Army secretary said he has also suspended the leaders of Fort Hood’s 1st Cavalry Division — Maj. Gen Jeff Broadwater and Command Sgt. Maj. Thomas Kenny — pending the results of a new investigation into the unit’s command climate and implementation of the sexual assault prevention program.

Efflandt served as the base commander in the absence of its deployed top general, Lt. Gen. Pat White. Efflandt was supposed to move to Fort Bliss, Texas, during the summer and serve as commander of the 1st Armored Division. But he was replaced and remained at Fort Hood as the III Corps deputy commander for support while awaiting the results of several ongoing investigations.

White, commander of III Corps and Fort Hood, said Tuesday during a news conference at the base that he was given enough notice of the firings, which occurred Tuesday morning, to prepare a “compassion team” made up of a lawyer, a public affairs representative, a chaplain, a behavioral health representative and a cyber awareness expert.

“[Those fired] were notified with someone catching them coming out to make sure they are taken care of as well,” White said. “Now we will deal with the aftermath here in the command structure because there are people who will not be reporting to work tomorrow.”

The firings come following a release of a report from a civilian-led investigation that found Fort Hood soldiers have a lack of confidence in the SHARP program that has led to a fear of retaliation and significant underreporting of sexual assault and harassment cases, particularly within the enlisted ranks.

Fort Hood leadership knew or should have known of the high risk of harm to female soldiers, according to the report.

Army officials said Tuesday that they would not name the nine other soldiers fired or suspended after the probe because of their lesser ranks. Those soldiers serve between the squad and battalion level and face noncriminal, administrative punishments, the Army said in a statement.

McCarthy appointed five civilians to investigate the base in July as part of a Fort Hood Investigative Review Committee, which after three months identified the central Texas base to have a “deficient climate” and an “ineffective implementation” of the SHARP program.

“Soldiers assaulting and harassing other soldiers is contrary to Army values and requires a dramatic change in culture,” Chris Swecker, the committee chairman, said Tuesday. “The committee determined that, during the time period covered by our review, there was a permissive environment for sexual assault and sexual harassment at Fort Hood. We have recommended changes to the staffing, structure and implementation of the SHARP program at Fort Hood, and possibly beyond, to address deeply dysfunctional norms and regain soldiers’ trust.”

In all, the committee provided nine findings and 70 recommendations related to the SHARP program, Fort Hood’s Criminal Investigation Command detachment, missing soldier protocols and the base’s crime prevention and public relations efforts.

“Fort Hood and the Army as whole must do more to cultivate a culture of inclusivity and respect which values the contributions of all service members,” the investigators wrote.

McCarthy said he had accepted all of the investigation’s findings and would move for the Army to implement all of its recommendations. The Army secretary said he had established a group, dubbed the People First Task Force, to look at making those changes — many of which impact the entire Army — by March. The task force will be led by a three-star general.

The investigation was triggered by the disappearance and death of 20-year-old Spc. Vanessa Guillen, who went missing from Fort Hood on April 22 while working in an arms room with the 3rd Cavalry Regiment’s engineer squadron. Her remains were found June 30 alongside a river about 30 miles from the base.

Spc. Aaron Robinson, another soldier in Guillen’s squadron, killed her with a hammer, then moved her body, according to court documents. A second suspect, Cecily Aguilar, is in federal custody and accused of conspiracy to tamper with evidence in the case. Robinson shot himself dead July 1 when approached by civilian law enforcement in Killeen, the town just outside Fort Hood.

McCarthy said during an August visit to Fort Hood that he hoped the review committee could help shed light on why the base has the Army’s highest numbers of violent felonies, including sexual assault and homicide.

Since March, the deaths of five soldiers assigned to the Army base have been ruled homicides.

Looking back, the committee found Fort Hood’s Criminal Investigation Command detachment, known as CID, was not prepared to take on such cases. The committee found it to be “under-experienced and over-assigned,” which negatively impacted investigations of sex crimes and deaths.

Of 35 agents assigned to Fort Hood’s CID unit, only three or four had two more years of investigations experience, the investigators found. The Army also announced Tuesday that it will open an investigation “into the resourcing, policies and procedures” of Fort Hood’s CID unit, the 6th Military Police Group.

The five members on the independent review committee -- Swecker, Jonathan Harmon, Carrie Ricci, Queta Rodriguez and Jack White -- discussed their findings during a Tuesday news conference at the Pentagon following remarks from the McCarthy and other top Army officials.

They said they conducted more than 600 interviews with soldiers at Fort Hood and surveyed another 31,000 as part of their probe. Among those interviewed were 503 female soldiers, among whom 93 revealed “credible allegations” of sexual assault. Only 59 of them reported the crime, the investigators said, citing widespread fear of retaliation against those who filed reports.

“One of the things that the soldiers at Fort Hood many of them needed was to be believed,” Ricci said. “And that was what we did — we listened. I want them to know we believe. And that was a really important takeaway was to believe them.”

The civilian committee will next face questions Wednesday from lawmakers during a hearing of the House Armed Services Committee’s subpanel on military personnel.

During White’s news conference at Fort Hood, he said he will implement as many of the report’s recommendations that he can at his level. To emphasize this to his leaders, White held a 6 a.m. formation with every battalion-level command team at Fort Hood.

“I expect you to be the change agent,” he said he told the leaders. “And if you’re not and we don’t get positive results, your work will be spoken for.”

That change includes creating an environment in which soldiers feel comfortable reporting sexual assault and harassment, White said, noting he’s posted his own phone number throughout the base to encourage victims to contact him directly if they don’t feel like their commander is listening.

McCarthy said White was not removed from his position because, during most of the time period examined by the Army, he was deployed for 13 months leading the counter-Islamic State fight in Iraq.

McCarthy also announced Tuesday that he had officially instituted a policy, creating a new category for soldiers who do not show up for duty. Instead of immediately being classified AWOL, soldiers who do not report for duty will be classified as “absent-unknown,” and commanders are now directed to launch an immediate effort to find the missing soldier.

Previously, soldiers who were missing for reasons that were unclear were automatically classified as AWOL, which Army officials said carried a negative connotation. Commanders also did not have the requirement to launch an immediate search effort for those soldiers.

Commanders can hold absent soldiers in that new status for up to 48 hours, according to the directive that McCarthy signed Nov. 17. If “a preponderance of evidence” exists that they are absent voluntarily, the soldier is to be reported AWOL. If a commander cannot determine whether the soldier has purposely not reported for duty, the soldier is classified as “duty status-whereabouts unknown,” or DUSTWUN, according to the directive.

McCarthy said the change, recommended by the committee, is meant to instill trust that the Army is serious about taking care of its people.

“This report, without a doubt, will cause the Army to change our culture,” he said. “Even though we are part of one of the most respected institutions in the world, living up to the American people's trust is something we have to do every day. I believe in this institution, and its officers, noncommissioned officers, soldiers, civilians and their families with every fiber of my being. I'm confident in our leaders’ ability to overcome this challenge, and to continue to win our nation's wars, while also caring for our people.”

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III Corps and Fort Hood welcomes new Deputy Commanding General Maj. Gen. Steven W. Gilland

III Corps (United States)

For the Third Army Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see III Corps (Union Army).

Major formation of the United States Army Forces Command

Military unit

III Corps is a corps of the United States Army headquartered at Fort Hood, Texas. It is a major formation of the United States Army Forces Command.

Activated in World War I in France, III Corps oversaw US Army divisions as they repelled several major German offensives and led them into Germany. The corps was deactivated following the end of the war.

Reactivated in the interwar years, III Corps trained US Army formations for combat before and during World War II, before itself being deployed to the European Theater where it participated in several key engagements, including the Battle of the Bulge where it relieved the surrounded 101st Airborne Division.

For the next 50 years, the corps was a key training element for the US Army as it sent troops overseas in support of the Cold War, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The corps saw no combat deployments, however, until Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003. As of April 2019[update], III Corps includes some of the oldest formations of their type in the US Army: 1st Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division, 1st Armored Division and 1st Medical Brigade.

History[edit]

World War I[edit]

III Corps was first organized on 16 May 1917 in France.[4] It was designed as three of the four newly activated corps of the American Expeditionary Force, which at that time numbered over one million men in 23 divisions. The corps took command of US forces training with the French Seventh Army at the same time that IV Corps took command of US forces training with the French Eighth Army.[5]

Aisne-Marne campaign[edit]

In July, the corps was rushed to the Villers-Cotterêts area in preparation for the Third Battle of the Aisne, the first major Allied counteroffensive of the year. There, it was put under the French Tenth Army and given administrative command of the 1st Division and the 2nd Division which were previously under command of the French XX Corps.[6] However, the command group arrived in the area too late to exercise tactical command, and it was instead attached to the French XX Corps. On 18 July, the attack was launched, with the force spearheading the French Tenth Army's assault on the high ground south of Soissons. During this attack, the Corps also cut rail lines supplying the German Army.

The first day of the attack was a success, but on the second day, the Germans were reinforced with heavier weapons and were able to blunt the attack, inflicting high casualties. The force was successful despite heavy casualties, and German forces were forced to retreat.[7] On 1 August, the corps arrived in the Vesle area near the Marne River, where it assumed command of the 3rd Division, 28th Division, and 32nd Division from the French XXXVIII Corps, placing side by side with the U.S. I Corps for a few days.[8] Troops continued to advance until September when they withdrew to form the new First United States Army.[9]

Meuse-Argonne campaign[edit]

Map of the area during the Meuse-Argonne campaign

First Army formed up in preparation to advance in the Meuse-Argonne campaign. It consisted of over 600,000 men in I Corps, III Corps, and V Corps. III Corps took the Army's east flank, protecting it as the Army advanced to Montfaucon, then Cunel and Romagne-sous-Montfaucon.[10] The offensive was slow and hampered by inexperience of many of the divisions under the Army's command, though III Corps was effective in protecting its sector.[11] They advanced through September and October, taking a few weeks for rest after the formation of Second United States Army.[12] On 1 November, the First Army went on a general offensive, pushing north to the Meuse River and the Barricourt Ridge. It was successful, pushing German forces back and advancing to the river until the end of the war.[13] Around that time, III Corps received its shoulder sleeve insignia, approved it by telegram, though the insignia would not be officially authorized until 1922.[14]

The corps was demobilized in Neuwied, Germany at the close of hostilities.[15] Following the end of World War I, III Corps remained in Europe for several months before it returned to the United States. It was demobilized at Camp Sherman, Ohio.[4]

Interwar period[edit]

On 15 August 1927 the XXII Corps was activated in the United States. On 13 October of that year XXII Corps was redesignated as III Corps. It was formally activated on 18 December 1927.[4] Throughout much of the next decade, the corps was directed primarily with training and equipping smaller units, as the US military began slowly building in strength in response to international conflicts.[16] In 1940, III Corps was tasked specifically with training newly formed US Army combat divisions in preparation for deployment.[1] It was moved to Camp Hood, Texas for this mission.[17]

World War II[edit]

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor bringing America into World War II, III Corps remained in the United States, where it was assigned to organize defenses of the West Coast, specifically California, against the threat of attack from Japan. During this time III Corps operated at Monterey, California.[15][18]

The corps was moved to Fort McPherson, Georgia in early 1942 for training. After a short period, the corps returned to Monterey and on 19 August 1942, it was designated a separate corps, capable of deployment. During the next two years, III Corps would train thousands of troops for combat, including 33 division-sized units, and participate in four corps-level maneuvers, including the Louisiana Maneuvers.[15]

Europe[edit]

On 23 August 1944, the corps headquarters departed California for Camp Myles Standish in Massachusetts. It deployed for the European Theater of Operations (ETO) on 5 September 1944. Upon arrival at Cherbourg, France, III Corps, under the command of Major General John Millikin, was assigned to the Ninth Army, part of Lieutenant GeneralOmar Bradley's U.S. 12th Army Group, and given the code name "CENTURY" which it retained throughout the war.[15] The corps headquarters was established at Carteret, in Normandy, and for six weeks, the corps received and processed all the troops of the 12th Army Group arriving over the Normandy beaches during that period. The corps also participated in the "Red Ball Express" by organizing 45 provisional truck companies to carry fuel and ammunition for the units on the front lines.[15]

The "Red Ball Express" which III Corps helped organize.

The corps was assigned to Lieutenant General George S. Patton's Third Army on 10 October 1944, and moved to Etain, near Verdun, and into combat. The corps' first fighting was for the Metz region, as it was moved to attack Fort Jeanne d'Arc, one of the last forts holding out in the region. That fort fell on 13 December 1944.[15]

Later that month on 16 December came the last German counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge, as over 250,000 German troops, supported by over 1,000 tanks and assault guns assaulted the lines of VIII Corps, some 40 miles to the north of III Corps.[19] The next day Patton, the Third Army commander, warned III Corps that it would likely be ordered to assist.[20] At that time the corps consisted of the 26th and 80th Infantry Divisions and the 4th Armored Division.[21] III Corps was moved north to assist in the relief of Bastogne, Belgium, with the attack commencing at 04:00 on 22 December 1944.[22] The corps advanced north, catching the German forces by surprise on their south flank, cutting them off.[23] The 4th Armored Division was eventually able to reach Bastogne, where the 101st Airborne Division had been surrounded by German forces, and relieve it.[24] During the first 10 days of this action, III Corps liberated more than 100 towns, including Bastogne. This operation was key in halting the German offensive and the eventual drive to the Rhine River.[15]

During the first four months of 1945, III Corps moved quickly to the offensive. On 25 February, the corps, now as part of the First Army, established a bridgehead over the Roer River, which, in turn, led to the capture of the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen, on the Rhine River, on 7 March.[1] On 30 March, the Edersee Dam was captured intact by Task Force Wolfe of the 7th Armored Division, and the corps, now commanded by Major General James Van Fleet after Millikin's relief, continued the attack to seize the Ruhr Pocket on 5 April 1945. In late April, III Corps reformed and launched a drive through Bavaria towards Austria. On 2 May 1945, III Corps was ordered to halt at the Inn River on the Austrian border, just days before V-E Day, when the German forces surrendered, bringing an end of World War II in Europe.[15]

Post-war[edit]

At the end of the war, III Corps had added campaign streamers for Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe, had taken more than 226,102 prisoners and had seized more than 4,500 square miles (12,000 km2) of German territory. The corps had also participated in most of the critical actions from Normandy to the German-Austrian border. Its wartime commanders included Major General John Millikin and Major General James A. Van Fleet.[15] After 13 months of occupation duty in Germany, the corps returned to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where it was inactivated on 10 October 1946.[4]

Cold War era[edit]

On 15 March 1951, during the height of the Korean War, III Corps was again called to active duty at Camp Roberts, California.[4] In April 1954, III Corps moved to Fort Hood, Texas, where it participated in a number of important exercises, either as director headquarters or as a player unit. It took command of the 1st Armored Division and the 4th Armored Division.[25] The main purpose of these operations was the testing of new doctrines, organizations, and equipment. On 5 May 1959, the corps was again inactivated.[4]

The Berlin crisis brought III Corps back to active duty for the fourth time on 1 September 1961.[4] Units participated in an intensive training program and were operationally ready by December 1961. In February 1962, the Department of the Army designated III Corps as a unit of the U.S. Strategic Army Corps and in September 1965, assigned III Corps to the U.S. Strategic Army Forces.[17] Throughout much of the 1960s, III Corps and its subordinate units trained for rapid deployment to Europe in the event of an outbreak of war there.[26]

During the Vietnam War era, the corps supervised the training and deployment of more than 137 units and detachments to Southeast Asia, including the I and II Field Force staffs. The corps also trained more than 40,000 individual replacements for units in Vietnam, for a total of over 100,000 soldiers trained.[17] As the war in Southeast Asia ended, the corps received many units and individual soldiers for reassignment or inactivation. It was also during this period that III Corps units participated in a number of key tests and evaluations that would help determine Army organization and equipment for the next 30 years.[15] During this era, the corps also received its distinctive unit insignia.[14]

In July 1973, III Corps became part of the newly established Forces Command and its training, testing, and evaluation mission began to grow. For the remainder of the decade, III Corps would take part in a number of Training and Doctrine Command tests of organizations and tactical concepts, and play a key role in the fielding of new equipment. III Corps units would also participate in major exercises such as Exercise REFORGER (Return of Forces to Germany) and disaster relief operations in the United States and Central America.[15]

In the summer of 1974, the Army decided to implement one of the recommendations of the Howze Board and created an air cavalry combat brigade. The assets of the 2d Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division were used to create the 6th Cavalry Brigade (Air Combat). The new brigade was assigned to the III Corps as a corps asset. 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment, was transferred to the new brigade on 21 February 1975. The brigade served as a test bed for new concepts involving the employment of attack helicopters on the modern battlefield. In 1985–85, the brigade consisted of 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry; 4th Squadron, 9th Cavalry Regiment (4-9 CAV); and 5th and 7th Squadrons, 17th Cavalry Regiment (5-17 CAV and 7-17 CAV), all flying attack helicopters.[27]

As part of the Army's modernization effort in the 1980s corps units introduced new organizations and equipment including the M1 Abrams tank, M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, AH-64 Apache helicopter, Multiple Launch Rocket System, and Mobile Subscriber Equipment. In 1987, III Corps also conducted the largest deployment of forces to Germany since the Second World War, Exercise Reforger '87. During this time, the corps began assisting in the training and support of active and reserve component units. This support involves training guidance, resources, and the maintenance of relationships that extend to wartime affiliations.[15]

Organization 1989[edit]

At the end of the Cold War in 1989 III Corps consisted of the following formations and units:

  • III Corps, Fort Hood, Texas[28]
    • 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood (Operation Reforger formation)
    • 2nd Armored Division, Fort Hood (Operation Reforger formations)
    • 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized), Fort Polk, Louisiana (Operation Reforger formation)
    • III Corps Artillery, Fort Sill, Oklahoma
    • 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Bliss, Texas (Operation Reforger unit)
    • 6th Cavalry Brigade (Air Combat), Fort Hood
    • 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, Fort Hood
    • 89th Military Police Brigade, Fort Hood
    • 3rd Signal Brigade (Corps), Fort Hood
    • 504th Military Intelligence Brigade, Fort Hood
    • 13th Corps Support Command, Fort Hood

1990s[edit]

Following the end of the Cold War, III Corps headquarters itself saw no major contingencies, however it saw numerous units under its command deploy to contingencies around the world. III Corps units were sent to Grenada, Panama, Honduras, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iraq. In the fall of 1990, two 6th Cavalry Brigade (Air Combat) units deployed to Iraq during Operation Desert Shield. One of those units was 2nd Battalion, 158th Aviation Regiment, a Chinook battalion from Fort Hood. Other corps units also provided humanitarian support for Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. III Corps elements supported Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well.[17]

It was after the Cold War that III Corps was acclimated to the role of primary counteroffensive force for the US Army. With the downsizing of other major Army formations, III Corps gained command of heavier units, including the 1st Cavalry Division while the XVIII Airborne Corps took charge of rapid-deployment for emergency contingencies, including the 101st Airborne Division and 82nd Airborne Division. III Corps took charge of the heavy units designed for large, conventional offensive actions.[2]

21st century[edit]

In 2001, the corps was composed of the 1st Cavalry Division and the 4th Infantry Division as well as the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 13th Corps Support Command.[1] However, with realignment of the US Army and the return of several formations from Europe, the corps took command of the 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Armored Division as well, both of these units having been transferred from V Corps in Germany.

The corps headquarters saw its first combat deployment since the Second World War in 2004, when it deployed to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom. There, III Corps headquarters assumed duties as Headquarters Multi-National Corps – Iraq, relieving V Corps. III Corps served as the administrative command for 2,500 soldiers of the Multi-National Force – Iraq command element, providing operational direction into 2005, when it was returned to Fort Hood, relieved by XVIII Airborne Corps.[29] III Corps has for many years participated in an exchange program which sees a Canadian Army officer appointed as a deputy commanding general. Notably, Peter Devlin deployed with the corps to Iraq in 2005.

III Corps Artillery was inactivated on 8 September 2006. Henceforth the field artillery brigades, soon to become Fires Brigades, would be assigned to the corps and division headquarters directly.

President Barack Obama speaks outside of III Corps headquarters, Fort Hood, Texas

In 2007, the corps returned to Iraq for a second time to serve as commanding headquarters for Multi-National Corps Iraq. During this 15-month deployment, the corps took command of the force at its largest with Iraq War troop surge. The corps conducted a similar mission to its first deployment, focusing on providing personnel management, training, communications, convoy escort, and other duties to support the commanding elements of Multi-National Force Iraq. III Corps fulfilled this mission until February 2008, when it returned home, again relieved by XVIII Airborne Corps.[30]

In 2009, the corps began a number of training initiatives with the Republic of Korea Army. These included Operation Key Resolve, a command post exercise simulating major, high intensity combat operations. The exercises were held in Yongin, South Korea. These operations were designed to keep the corps familiar with commanding during large-scale conventional warfare, as opposed to counter-insurgency tactics it employed during its two tours in Iraq.[31] Upon return to the United States, the corps conducted similar exercises at Fort Hood.[32]

On 5 November 2009, a gunman opened fire in the Soldier Readiness Center of Fort Hood, killing 13 people and wounding 30 others. Nidal Hasan, a Muslim U.S. Armymajor and psychiatrist, was alleged to be the gunman. He was felled and then arrested by civilian police officers Sergeant Mark Todd and Sergeant Kimberly Munley. Much of the subsequent investigation was handled by III Corps, as the soldiers killed were under the corps' chain of command.[33][34][35]

III Corps, commanded by LTG Robert W. Cone, assumed its final Iraq mission from I Corps from Joint Base Lewis–McChord, Washington in February 2010. As the core element of United States Forces – Iraq headquarters, III Corps oversaw a theater-wide transition from full-spectrum operations to stability operations. The corps changed the counterinsurgency (COIN) fight dynamic from partnered combat operations, led by brigade combat teams, to training, advising, and assisting operations, led by brigades organized as advise and assist brigades. The corps also completed the transition to complete Iraqi lead for security operations. During the deployment, III Corps reduced the amount of aviation assets in Iraq, resulting in one enhanced combat aviation brigade with six maneuver battalions having responsibility for the entire joint operations area. III Corps also oversaw the reduction of the force in Iraq from 110,000 to 50,000 U.S. personnel by 1 Sept. 2010, which established the conditions for the end of Operation Iraqi Freedom and the transition to Operation New Dawn. XVIII Airborne Corps from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, assumed the Iraq follow-on mission from III Corps in February 2011.

The corps saw its first action in Afghanistan when it deployed to Kabul in early April 2013. The corps, under the command of LTG Mark A. Milley, replaced the U.S. V Corps from Stuttgart, Germany, in May 2013 and assumed the mission of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Joint Command, or IJC, which was responsible for day-to-day operations throughout Afghanistan. During the corps' deployment, IJC oversaw Milestone 13/Tranche 5 ceremony on 18 June 2013, which marked the official transition of full responsibility for nationwide security operations from ISAF to the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). After the Milestone 13 ceremony, IJC transitioned from Coalition-led combat operations to Afghan-led combat operations and Coalition forces providing training, advice, and assistance. The ANSF, officially less than three years old, reached its peak of more than 350,000 members and conducted more than 70 major operations in more than 22 provinces. In November 2013, IJC forces provided technical support to the ANSF as it secured the Loya Jirga, a country-wide gathering of Afghan local leaders and officials, in Kabul. The Loya Jirga successfully laid the groundwork for a U.S.-Afghanistan Bilateral Security Agreement. During the deployment, III Corps also oversaw the drawdown of U.S. forces from more than 80,000 to 34,000 by 1 Feb. 2014. XVIII Airborne Corps from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, assumed the ISAF Joint Command mission from III Corps in March 2014.

On 22 September 2015, III Corps assumed command of CJTF-OIR from United States Army Central.

On 13 October 2020, the III Corps commander launched Operation People First at Fort Hood, Fort Bliss, Fort Carson, Fort Riley, and other III Corps units.[36]

Organization[edit]

III Corps organization 2021 (click to enlarge)

3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg III Corps, Fort Hood

  • 3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg III Corps Special Troops Battalion, Fort Hood
  • United States Army 1st Infantry Division CSIB.svg1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley
  • 1st Cavalry Division SSI (full color).svg1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood
  • United States Army 1st Armored Division CSIB.svg1st Armored Division, Fort Bliss
  • 4th Infantry Division SSI.svg4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson
  • US Army - 75th Field Artillery Brigade Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.png75th Field Artillery Brigade, Fort Sill
  • 36 Eng Bde SSI.jpg36th Engineer Brigade, Fort Hood
  • 3dACRSSI.PNG3rd Cavalry Regiment,[37] Fort Hood
  • Insignia of the 11th Signal Brigade (Desert Thunderbirds).svg11th Signal Brigade, Fort Hood

Honors[edit]

The corps received five campaign streamers in World War I and four campaign streamers in World War II.[18] It also received two campaign streamers and two unit awards during the War on Terrorism.[38]

Unit decorations[edit]

Campaign streamers[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcd"Fort Hood Fact Sheet: III Corps"(PDF). Fort Hood Public Affairs Office. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  2. ^ ab"III Corps". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  3. ^"III Corps Commanding General". Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  4. ^ abcdefgWilson, p. 53.
  5. ^Stewart, p. 35.
  6. ^Stewart, p. 37.
  7. ^Stewart, p. 38.
  8. ^Stewart, p. 39.
  9. ^Stewart, p. 40.
  10. ^Stewart, p. 44.
  11. ^Stewart, p. 45
  12. ^Stewart, p. 48.
  13. ^Stewart, p. 49.
  14. ^ ab"The Institute of Heraldry: III Corps". The Institute of Heraldry. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  15. ^ abcdefghijkl"GlobalSecurity.org: III Corps History". GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  16. ^Stewart, p. 67.
  17. ^ abcd"History of Fort Hood". Fort Hood Public Affairs Office. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  18. ^ abWilson, p. 54.
  19. ^Axelrod, p. 145.
  20. ^Axelrod, p. 147.
  21. ^Axelrod, p. 148.
  22. ^Axelrod, p. 149.
  23. ^Stewart, p. 156.
  24. ^Axelrod, p. 150.
  25. ^"III Corps Opened at Fort Hood". Fort Hood Sentinel. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  26. ^"Fort Hood gets heavy". Fort Hood Sentinel. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  27. ^Isby, David C. and Charles Kamps Jr., Armies of NATO's Central Front, JAne's Publishing Company, 1985, 377.
  28. ^Army - The Magazine of Landpower - October 1989 (1989). "Command and Staff". Association of the US Army. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  29. ^"9 Jan. 2004 Speech by Gov. Rick Perry". Office of Rick Perry. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  30. ^"Transfer of Authority: XVIII Airborne Corps Special Troops Battalion takes the lead from III Corps' Task Force Phantom". United States Army. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  31. ^"Phantom Warriors transition from Key Resolve to Unified Endeavor". United States Army. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  32. ^"Full-spectrum capability key for III Corps". United States Army. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  33. ^"Fort Hood Gunman Who Killed 12, Wounded 30 Survived Gun Battle". ABC News. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  34. ^"Deadly shootings at US army base". BBC News. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  35. ^Root, Jay (Associated Press), "Officer Gives Account of the Firefight at Fort Hood", Arizona Republic, 8 November 2009.
  36. ^Brandy Cruz, Fort Hood Public Affairs (10 December 2020) Operation People First: Fort Hood, III Corps command team remains focused on future CG Pat White meets with 1800 junior Soldiers at Fort Hood Stadium. A Fort Hood Independent Review Committee (FHIRC) released a 136 page report on the command climate at Fort Hood, which Secretary of the Army McCarthy released 8 December 2020. His commanders have 36 hours to release the FHIRC report to the Soldiers in their chains of command. Gen. White asks that the Soldiers ask questions and demand answers on Operation People First.
  37. ^Geiger, Capt. Grace (5 April 2017). "3rd Cav Regt transitions to III Corps". Killeen, TX: 3d Cavalry Regiment Public Affairs Office. DVIDS. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  38. ^"War on Terrorism Awards". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 26 November 2009.

Sources[edit]

  • Axelrod, Alan (2006). Patton: A Biography. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN .
  • Stewart, Richard W. (2005). American military history ([Textbook version] ed.). Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army. ISBN . OCLC 60767166.
  • Wilson, John B. (1987). Armies, corps, divisions, and separate brigades. Center of Military History, U.S. Army. OCLC 15018137.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/III_Corps_(United_States)

Corps list iii commander

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III Corps' 100th year Birthday

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