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000Uncoded Incident101Woman in Car102Woman out of Car211Armed Robbery211AArmed Robbery Alarm212Strong Armed Robbery235Drugs238Trespassing239Fight in Progress240Assault245Aggravated Assault261Sexual Assault265Prostitution310Molestation311Indecent Exposure315Forgery317Fraud320Found Property390Intoxicated Person412Obscene/Harassing Phone Calls413Harassment414Threats415Neighbor Trouble416Criminal Damage417Juveniles Disturbing418Subjects Disturbing419Noise Disturbance420Family Fight421Shots Fired422Subject with Gun423Subject with Knife424Civil Matter425Custodial Interference427Order of Protection Violation/Service451Homicide459ABurglary Alarm459CBurglary, Commercial459RBurglary, Residential459VBurglary, Vehicle487CTheft, Commercial487RTheft, Residential487VTheft, Vehicle488Shoplifting491Kidnapping492Child Contact/Child Abduction507Traffic Control508Watch Your Car509Stolen Vehicle509RStolen Vehicle, Recovered515Suspended License585Traffic Incident600Information Received601Missing Person602Child Abuse/Neglect646Suspicious Activity647Suspicious Person/s648Suspicious Vehicle/s666Suicide692DUI707Bomb Located or Threat801Pick up Dog801BDog Bite801DDead Dog802Pick up Cat802BCat Bite802DDead Cat803Dog/s at Large804Barking Dog805Misc. Animal Call805DMisc. Dead Animal900Welfare Check901Shooting902Stabbing903Dead Body906Officer Assist, Minor907Follow Up909Agency Assist910Transport Unit913Officer Assist, 2 Units916City Code Violation917Abandoned Vehicle/s918Insane Person921Prowler927Unknown Trouble927APanic Alarm961Accident961HHit & Run962Accident with Injuries962HHit & Run Accident with Injuries963Fatal Accident963HHit & Run Fatal Accident998Officer Involved Shooting999Officer Needs Help, Urgent1038Warrant Arrest1079Emergency Message
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Radio frequency

Electromagnetic frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 300 GHz

This article is about the generic oscillation. For the radiation, see radio wave. For the spectrum, see radio spectrum. For the electronics, see radio-frequency engineering.

"RF" redirects here. For other uses, see RF (disambiguation).

Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency[1] range from around 20 kHz to around 300 GHz. This is roughly between the upper limit of audio frequencies and the lower limit of infrared frequencies;[2][3] these are the frequencies at which energy from an oscillating current can radiate off a conductor into space as radio waves. Different sources specify different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range.

Electric current [edit]

Electric currents that oscillate at radio frequencies (RF currents) have special properties not shared by direct current or super low frequencyalternating current used for electrical power distribution.

  • Energy from RF currents in conductors can radiate into space as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). This is the basis of radio technology.
  • RF current does not penetrate deeply into electrical conductors but tends to flow along their surfaces; this is known as the skin effect.
  • RF currents applied to the body often do not cause the painful sensation and muscular contraction of electric shock that lower frequency currents produce.[4][5] This is because the current changes direction too quickly to trigger depolarization of nerve membranes. However this does not mean RF currents are harmless; they can cause internal injury as well as serious superficial burns called RF burns.
  • RF current can easily ionize air, creating a conductive path through it. This property is exploited by "high frequency" units used in electric arc welding, which use currents at higher frequencies than power distribution uses.
  • Another property is the ability to appear to flow through paths that contain insulating material, like the dielectric insulator of a capacitor. This is because capacitive reactance in a circuit decreases with increasing frequency.
  • In contrast, RF current can be blocked by a coil of wire, or even a single turn or bend in a wire. This is because the inductive reactance of a circuit increases with increasing frequency.
  • When conducted by an ordinary electric cable, RF current has a tendency to reflect from discontinuities in the cable, such as connectors, and travel back down the cable toward the source, causing a condition called standing waves. RF current may be carried efficiently over transmission lines such as coaxial cables.

Frequency bands[edit]

Main article: Radio spectrum

The radio spectrum of frequencies is divided into bands with conventional names designated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU):

Frequency
range
Wavelength
range
ITU designationIEEE bands[6]
Full name Abbreviation[7]
Below 3 Hz >105 kmTremendously low frequency[8]TLFN/A
3–30 Hz 105–104 kmExtremely low frequencyELFN/A
30–300 Hz 104–103 kmSuper low frequencySLFN/A
300–3000 Hz 103–100 kmUltra low frequencyULFN/A
3–30 kHz 100–10 kmVery low frequencyVLFN/A
30–300 kHz 10–1 kmLow frequencyLFN/A
300 kHz – 3 MHz 1 km – 100 mMedium frequencyMFN/A
3–30 MHz 100–10 mHigh frequencyHFHF
30–300 MHz 10–1 mVery high frequencyVHFVHF
300 MHz – 3 GHz 1 m – 10 cmUltra high frequencyUHFUHF, L, S
3–30 GHz 10–1 cmSuper high frequencySHFS, C, X, Ku, K, Ka
30–300 GHz 1 cm – 1 mmExtremely high frequencyEHFKa, V, W, mm
300 GHz – 3 THz 1 mm – 0.1 mmTremendously high frequencyTHFN/A

Frequencies of 1 GHz and above are conventionally called microwave,[9] while frequencies of 30 GHz and above are designated millimeter wave. More detailed band designations are given by the standard IEEE letter- band frequency designations[6] and the EU/NATO frequency designations.[10]

Applications[edit]

Communications[edit]

Radio frequencies are used in communication devices such as transmitters, receivers, computers, televisions, and mobile phones, to name a few.[1] Radio frequencies are also applied in carrier current systems including telephony and control circuits. The MOS integrated circuit is the technology behind the current proliferation of radio frequency wirelesstelecommunications devices such as cellphones.

Medicine[edit]

Main article: Medical applications of radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) energy, in the form of radiating waves or electrical currents, has been used in medical treatments for over 75 years,[11] generally for minimally invasive surgeries using radiofrequency ablation including the treatment of sleep apnea.[12]

Measurement[edit]

Test apparatus for radio frequencies can include standard instruments at the lower end of the range, but at higher frequencies, the test equipment becomes more specialized.[13][citation needed]

Mechanical oscillations[edit]

While RF usually refers to electrical oscillations, mechanical RF systems are not uncommon: see mechanical filter and RF MEMS.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abJessica Scarpati. "What is radio frequency (RF, rf)?". SearchNetworking. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  2. ^J. A. Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1919, p. 364
  3. ^A. A. Ghirardi, Radio Physics Course, 2nd ed. New York: Rinehart Books, 1932, p. 249
  4. ^Curtis, Thomas Stanley (1916). High Frequency Apparatus: Its construction and practical application. USA: Everyday Mechanics Company. pp. 6.
  5. ^Mieny, C.J. (2005). Principles of Surgical Patient Care (2nd ed.). New Africa Books. p. 136. ISBN .
  6. ^ abIEEE Std 521-2002 Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency BandsArchived 2013-12-21 at the Wayback Machine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002. (Convenience copy at National Academies Press.)
  7. ^Jeffrey S. Beasley; Gary M. Miller (2008). Modern Electronic Communication (9th ed.). pp. 4–5. ISBN .
  8. ^Tremendously low frequency (TLF) (electromagnetic radiation, frequency below 3 Hz)
  9. ^Kumar, Sanjay; Shukla, Saurabh (2014). Concepts and Applications of Microwave Engineering. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 3. ISBN .
  10. ^Leonid A. Belov; Sergey M. Smolskiy; Victor N. Kochemasov (2012). Handbook of RF, Microwave, and Millimeter-Wave Components. Artech House. pp. 27–28. ISBN .
  11. ^Ruey J. Sung & Michael R. Lauer (2000). Fundamental approaches to the management of cardiac arrhythmias. Springer. p. 153. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2015-09-05.
  12. ^Melvin A. Shiffman; Sid J. Mirrafati; Samuel M. Lam; Chelso G. Cueteaux (2007). Simplified Facial Rejuvenation. Springer. p. 157. ISBN .
  13. ^"RF Radio Frequency Signal Generator » Electronics Notes". www.electronics-notes.com. Retrieved 29 January 2021.

External links[edit]

Radio spectrum (ITU)

ELF
3 Hz/100 Mm
30 Hz/10 Mm

SLF
30 Hz/10 Mm
300 Hz/1 Mm

ULF
300 Hz/1 Mm
3 kHz/100 km

VLF
3 kHz/100 km
30 kHz/10 km

LF
30 kHz/10 km
300 kHz/1 km

MF
300 kHz/1 km
3 MHz/100 m

HF
3 MHz/100 m
30 MHz/10 m

VHF
30 MHz/10 m
300 MHz/1 m

UHF
300 MHz/1 m
3 GHz/100 mm

SHF
3 GHz/100 mm
30 GHz/10 mm

EHF
30 GHz/10 mm
300 GHz/1 mm

THF
300 GHz/1 mm
3 THz/0.1 mm

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